This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Female Circumcism In Africa Essay

1738 words - 7 pages

Female Circumcision in Africa
Amber Triplett
June 23, 2015
Diversity: Dr. Saleem

Introduction
There are an estimated 130 million girls and women alive today whose human rights have been violated by female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). This harmful practice not only affects girls and women in Africa and the Middle East, where it is traditionally carried out, but also touches the lives of girls and women living in migrant communities in industrialized countries. Although collaborative advocacy has worked over recent decades has generated widespread commitment to end this practice, success in eliminating FGM/C has been limited, with some significant expectations. This harmful ...view middle of the document...

The use of the word mutilation reinforces the idea that this practice is a violation of girls and women’s human rights, and thereby helps promote national and international advocacy towards its abandonment. However, at the community level the term can be problematic. Local languages generally use the less judgmental term cutting to describe the practice; parents resent the suggestion that they are mutilating their daughters.
Where is FGM/C practiced?
The majority of girls and women at risk of undergoing FGM/C live in some 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East. In Africa, these countries form a broad band from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east. The practice of FGM/C is no longer restricted to countries in which it has been traditionally practiced. Education, especially of women, can play an important role in safe guarding the human rights of both women themselves, and those of their children. Overall, daughters of mothers who are more highly educated are less likely to have undergone FGM/C than daughters of mothers with little or no education. Women’s education may contribute to the reduction of the practice, but alone it is not sufficient enough to lead to its abandonment.

Social Dynamics of FGM/C
In every society in which it is practiced, FGM/C is a manifestation of gender inequality that is deeply entrenched in social, economic and political structure. Researchers seeking to understand how and why the practice of FGM/C persists are confronted with a contradiction: in many cases, parents and other family members are preserving a tradition that they know can bring harm, both physical and psychological, to their daughters. Mothers organize the cutting of their daughters because they consider that is what they must do to raise a girl properly and to prepare her for adulthood and marriage. In discussions about FGM/C, Mannika women in central Guinea explained that parents have a threefold obligation to their daughters: to educate them properly, cut them, and find them a husband (Gruenbaum, 2001). This obligation can be understood as a social convention to which parents confirm, even if the practice inflicts harm. From his perspective, not conforming would bring greater harm, since it would lead to shame an social exclusion. Social convention is so powerful that girls themselves may desire to cut, as a result of the social pressure from peers from peers and because of fear of stigmatization and rejection by their own communities if they do not follow the tradition (Shell-Duncan, 2000). FGM/C is an important part of girls and women’s cultural gender identity and the procedure may also impart a sense of pride, of coming of age and a feeling of community membership. Girls who undergo the procedure are provided with rewards, including celebrations, public recognition and gifts. In communities where FGM/C is almost university practiced, not conforming to the practice can result in stigmatization, social isolation and...

Other Essays Like Female Circumcism in Africa

Female Mutation Essay

626 words - 3 pages Sean Joseph, RN Female Genital Mutilation Controversy The removal of external female genitalia has been part of a celebrated ritual in the lives of girls and women in some cultures and countries for centuries. Despite growing international campaign to abolish female genital mutilation (FGM), many still see this tradition as an effective and acceptable method of controlling women's attitudes toward sex and sexuality and of ensuring their

African Writing in English Essay

5364 words - 22 pages sexual harassment of female students by male professors and with the struggles of educated African women. In The Rape of Shavi (1983), Emecheta explores the theme of the European exploitation of Africa in the setting of a fictional African country called Shavi. The novels Gwendolen (1989) and Kehinde (1994) are set in London. In Gwendolen Emecheta writes about a Jamaican family in a style reminiscent of the work of American author Alice Walker

No Longer Missing Links

866 words - 4 pages eagle. Scientists suspect an eagle killed the Taung Child because puncture marks were found at the bottom of the Taung Child’s eye sockets. These marks resemble those made by a modern eagle’s sharp claws and beak when they attack monkeys in Africa today. Meet "Selam", a young australopithecine 6. Where was "Selam" found? Answer: Selam is the fossilized skull and other skeletal remains of a three-year-old Australopithecus afarensis female

Tropical Dss

1331 words - 6 pages used by Dr. Francisco Torti, Italy, when people thought the disease was caused by foul air in marshy areas. It was not until 1880 that scientists discovered that malaria was a parasitic disease which is transmitted by the anopheles mosquito. The mosquito infects the host with a one-cell parasite called plasmodium. Not long after they found out that Malaria is transmitted from human-to-human through the bite of the female mosquito, which needs

Malaria in Africa

1157 words - 5 pages Megan Isbell Mr. Drewery Literature 10 6 march 2009 Malaria Malaria is the number one cause of deaths in Africa each year. Malaria damages the heart, lungs, kidneys, and the brain. Malaria is similar to the flu, because they have the same symptoms. Malaria is caused by Anopheles. Forty- percent of Africa is infected by malaria, and at least kills fifteen percent to twenty percent of people each year in Africa(Davis). Children are more

Presentation and Representation of Women in J. M. Coetzee’S, “Disgrace”

1873 words - 8 pages their inferior status in masculine society where she is considered and declared as an inhuman entity. Lucy, however, perceives this event as more than a rape; that is a historical hatred and a message to an Afrikaner for the enslavement as a tax for better and peaceful living in South Africa. Lucy’s this perception opens up the way for a possible assumption that Coetzee’s employment of victimization of female characters and feminine symbols stand

African Literature

4322 words - 18 pages CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION Literary works written in South Africa or written by South Africans living in other countries come under South African literature. South Africa has a very rich and diverse literary history. Realism being the dominating feature in the production of fiction in South African literature. The authors try to capture the country’s chaotic history and that of the experiences of its people. Fiction has been the dominating genre

Female Genital Mutilation in Ethnic Groups

1658 words - 7 pages . I couldn’t help, but research more information about female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation also known as circumcision is done, so that the women can become marriageable and be welcomed into the life of womanhood. It is looked as a religious obligation and ethnic identity. This ritual is practiced among the Jewish, Muslim, Animists, and Christian religion mainly in Egypt, Kenya, Hali, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia, Central Africa

Ghana Culture and People

971 words - 4 pages 1 Ghana What do you know? Question Which part of Africa is Ghana? Name two cities apart from the capital city of Ghana? What is the Name of the International Airport in Accra? Answer West Africa Tema, Prampram, Ashiaman, Osu, Nungua, Teshie Kotoka International Airport What are the colors of the National Flag? Red, Yellow with a black star and Green President John Dramani Mahama Who is the current President of Ghana? 2 1

Overview of Women's Position in Production

4104 words - 17 pages Contents i) Abbreviations ii) List of Tables iii) Methodology 1) Women’s position in world production 2) Women in the Bangladesh labour market 3) Background of garments in Bangladesh 4) Socio-economic profile of female garments workers in garment industry 5) Reasons for women’s’ involvement in garment work 6) Expenditure and absorption of women’s wages in the household

Sycamore Fig Tree (Ficus Sycomorus)

2654 words - 11 pages wasps from different species that is able to pollinate the fig (Cook and Segar 2010). More related to this mutualistic relationship between wasp and fig will be further seen in the reproduction category. Picture of a Ficus sycomorus in South Africa (Noort and Rasplus) Physiology Reproduction As mentioned before, figs are pollinated with the help of fig wasp that are associated with their inflorescence. Together they have an obligate

Related Papers

International Marketing Of South Africa Essay

979 words - 4 pages South Africa I. Background * Location: South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia. Mafadi in the Drakensberg at 3,450 m (11,320 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. South Africa also has one

A Cultural Experience About Female Circumcision

1844 words - 8 pages practice common to women of African descent, female circumcision is referred to by many in the Western world as female genital cutting (FGC) or female genital mutilation. Though there is an argument against female circumcision by westerners who view it as barbaric and violent, female circumcision is still a cultural tradition embraced by various ethnic groups across Africa. There are four types of female circumcisions—Type 1 referred to as

Cultural Influence On Business In Africa

1735 words - 7 pages involves thinking, feelings and acting. Furthermore, culture is a combination of material and spiritual wealth designed by man through process of social and historical development. Cultural Influence on Business in Africa Culture is the summary or sum total of people’s way of life which is transferable, in this case it must have great influence in business since business revolves within the circumference of people and their culture

South Africa Essay

1869 words - 8 pages Area -1,220,813 sq km Neighbours-Namibia in the northwest, Zimbabwe and Botswana in the north, and Mozambique and Swaziland in the northeast Caiptal -Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judicial) 1 Natural Resources     Only 12 % of South Africa’s land area is cultivated 8 % is forested South Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold, Witwatersrand Gold is mined to depths below (10,000