ï»¿Final Paper - Cumulative Chapter Review
July 3, 2014
1. You are writing a grant in order to purchase literature and nonfiction trade books for integration into your curriculum. Discuss 5 reasons that you could include in your rationale for needing additional trade books.
Trade books are nonfiction literature that many teachers have found useful especially in elementary and middle school classrooms. In a situation where you are attempting to rationalize the need for additional trade books in a classroom, you could include many reasons. While textbooks offer a consistent path for instruction, nonfiction trade books offer students an opportunity for a wider ...view middle of the document...
2. Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
Most teachers have a belief in what they consider is this the appropriate way to teach students how to read. The teachers who are part of the bottom-up curriculum thought are of the consideration that they must correct oral readersâ€™ errors while they are reading out loud. This is a necessity to help students learn to read correctly. They are also of the thought that the student must read the passage over and over to increase their word recognition. These students would be taught the alphabet first, followed by vowels, consonants, double letters, italics, and capitals within that instructional order. It is their thought that the student must be able to recognize and comprehend every word in a selection.
In the top-down curriculum, the belief is that most students learn by reading. The classroom in a top-down curriculum is a learning community where students are free to take risks and learn to read by trial and error. Students participate in activities which have students read, speak, and listen. It is assumed that all knowledge that students need to know is already pre-programmed and that the objective is looking at the big picture and analyzing into smaller pictures to process information and understand the information better. At the beginning at the term, it will require a lot of work. A teacher will have more control.
Assessment for the bottom-up curriculum is completed on discrete skills. The assessment for the top-down curriculum would be assessed through reading to identify the knowledge level. Both curriculums are essentially assessing the skills that need to be obtained at the reading level identified.
3. Name and explain 3 strategies you would use to help struggling readers develop vocabulary knowledge and concept development.
The classroom today is a diverse group which contains students from all different backgrounds, socioeconomic situations, health situations, and various nationalities. There are also many who may be first generation English speakers. As a result, a classroom of students will easily contain struggling readers that need to be identified and strategies need to be put into place to assist their vocabulary knowledge and concept knowledge. Usually, the more a student learns vocabulary and keywords their reading will improve. As a result, it is important to start with vocabulary building skills for struggling readers. It could be done with using vocabulary-building word parts. The breaking down of words is an essential method in learning new words and will provide the student a skill that can be used over and over. This will allow the students to see and understand words in reading passages when they appear. There is also the process of allowing students to identify their own vocabulary words in a...