Foundations Of Psychology Essay

1152 words - 5 pages

Foundations of PsychologyPSY 300University of PhoenixInformative Abstract of Psychology FoundationsThe foundations of psychology according to book called, Psychology: The study of Mental Processes and Behavior, consists of numerous psychologists and their theories that have developed the layout for human mental processes over the years which has been studied and followed by many aspiring and recognized psychologists. Multiple theorists such as Wilhelm Wundt who is considered to be the father or founder of psychology, Edward Titchener, and William James who wrote the first book about psychology, developed schools of thought or perspectives on why individuals behave in certain manners when ...view middle of the document...

This method required individuals to report thoughts and feelings that went through their mind when presented with certain stimulus or tasks and determined that the basic components of consciousness were sensations such as colors and feelings (Kowalski & Westen, 2005).One of Wilhelm Wundt's students, Edward Titchener incorporated the use of introspection into a different method called structuralism, which minimized mental thought processes into fundamental components for easier understanding. Another school of thought that was used in the early stages of psychology methods is called functionalism, and was founded by William James and focused primarily on the function of thought processes and behaviors of children, animals, and the mentally ill, which ultimately helped in assisting individuals adapt to their environment. Functionalism was designed to explain thought processes in detail and not just plainly describe components of the mind (Kowalski & Westen, 2005).Perspectives of PsychologyThrough the years since psychology has been founded, there have been numerous perspectives that have been used to understand mental processes. One of the first to be used in earlier times is called the psychodynamic perspective. Psychodynamics consists of three essential principles. The first, individual's reactions are decided by the way their feelings, thoughts, and wishes are joined together in their mind. Secondly, a vast amount of mental incidents happen outside of the individual's conscious perception. The third and final principle, mental processes can possibly clash with others, which can ultimately cause compromises among competing motives (Kowalski & Westen, 2005).The psychodynamic theory originated by Sigmund Freud, was developed and based off of an individual's responses to symptoms and how they were not centered on physiological malfunctions, but rather they were a basis of not being aware of them. Individuals may have underlying thoughts that they are not aware of, but could possibly be caused from previous experiences that have conditioned them to behaving in a certain form. The psychodynamic approach is still considered to be very influential today, and can still be found in others psychological theories.The next perspective called behaviorism founded by B. F. Skinner, is considered to be a condition that is learned through environmental stimuli and behavioral experiences. The behaviorist approach mainly consists of experimental methods that could control behaviors of individuals through controlled environmental consequences that can decrease...

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