A.P. U.S. History Notes
Chapter 37: “Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War”
~ 1933 – 1941 ~
I. The London Conference
1. The 1933 London Conference of the summer of 1933 was composed of 66 nations that came together to try to make a worldwide solution to the Great Depression.
i. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt at first agreed to send Secretary of State Cordell Hull but withdrew that agreement and scolded the other nations for trying to stabilize currencies.
ii. As a result, the conference adjourned accomplishing nothing, furthermore strengthening extreme nationalism.
II. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the ...view middle of the document...
S. marines left Haiti.
3. U.S. also lifted troops from Panama, but when Mexican forces seized Yankee oil properties, FDR found himself urged to take drastic action.
i. However, he resisted and worked out a peaceful deal.
ii. His “good neighbor” policy was a great success, improving the U.S. image in Latin American eyes.
IV. Secretary Hull’s Reciprocal Trade Agreement
1. Secretary of State Hull believed that trade was a two-way street, and he had a part in Congress’s passing of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act in 1934, which activated low-tariff policies while aiming at relief and recovery by lifting American trade.
i. This act whittled down the most objectionable schedules of the Hawley-Soot law by amending them, lowering rates by as much as half, provided that the other country would do the same for the United States.
2. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act reversed the traditional high-tariff policy that had damaged America before and paved the way for the American-led free-trade international economic system that was implemented after World War II.
V. Impulses Toward Storm-Center Isolationism
1. After World War I, many dictatorships sprang up, including Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, Benito Mussolini of Italy, and Adolph Hitler of Germany.
i. Of the three, Hitler was the most dangerous, because he was a great orator and persuader who led the German people to believe his “big lie,” making them think that he could lead the country back to greatness and out of this time of poverty and depression.
2. In 1936, Nazi Hitler and Fascist Mussolini allied themselves in the Rome-Berlin Axis.
3. Japan slowly began gaining strength, refusing to cooperate with the world and quickly arming itself by ending the Washington Naval Treaty in 1934 and walking out of the London Conference.
4. In 1935, Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, conquering it, but the League of Nations failed to take effective action against the aggressors.
5. America continued to hide behind the shell of isolationism, believing that everything would stay good if the U.S. wasn’t drawn into any international embroilments.
i. The 1934 Johnson Debt Default Act forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash.
6. In 1936, a group of Princeton University students began to agitate for a bonus to be paid to the Veterans of Future Wars (VFWs) while the perspective front-liners were still alive.
VI. Congress Legislates Neutrality
1. The 1934 Nye Committee was formed to investigate whether or not munitions manufacturers were pro-war for the sole purpose of making more money and profits, as the press blamed such producers for dragging America into the First World War.
2. To prevent America from being sucked into war, Congress passed Neutrality Acts in 1935-37, acts which stated that...