From Manuscript To Bound Book: How The Printing Press Revolutionized 15th Century Literature

1900 words - 8 pages

From Manuscript to Bound Book: How the Printing Press Revolutionized 15th Century Literature
“The invention of printing broadcast the printed language and gave to print a degree of authority that it has never lost.”- A. Lloyd James
Before the days of automated printers and wireless communication, manuscripts represented the primary but inefficient and costly way to record, obtain and share knowledge. It was not until the 15th century when Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press revolutionized the way information was stored and disseminated. The printing press quickly changed the way in which written works were manufactured and which works could be produced by allowing private citizens to ...view middle of the document...

While there existed means to replicate written works prior Gutenberg, they were limited in their scope. Technologies like woodblock printing have existed since 220 AD [cite] while the art of transcription has existed since antiquity. Woodblock printing involves carving a relief pattern into a block of wood and then stamping the inked block onto a piece of paper, animal skin or cloth. However, the carving of these blocks was a time, and labour intensive process and any errors in the block were permanent. Further constraints included only being able to print on one side of each sheet, as the stamping process would damage the first side, and the complexity of the craft necessitated skilled tradesmen to carve them. Scribes were the other way of reproducing work, but, like block printing, transcription took a very long time, with some works taking up to a year for a single scribe. []
To understand why the printing press so radically changed the status quo of the time, one has to appreciate how text was created and reproduced. In medieval times, the word “author” did not hold the same significance as it does today. Text was copied and circulated freely without credit [Chaytor 1950] and the idea of the author was a fluid definition. [McLuhan 1964] The scribes transcribing literature were less concerned with the origins of text and more of the utility. [McLuhan 1964] There were few trustworthy records of the origin of a copied text and the scribes that transcribed manuscripts usually wrote their own names at the end of the piece, instead of the name of the original author. If a new author wanted to cite something, he would have to sift through a compendium (a collection of texts too small to be their own book, usually listed by the author of the first entry) of other works that usually did not have the correct attributions, and make a reference to that particular work. However, there could be many versions of the same piece of text, in different compendia. [McLuhan 1964] Thus, ideas of ownership and authorship did not prevail as they do in modernity, and the concept of a static piece of work was nonexistent.
The staple of academia is the textbook: A collection of text from multiple authors researched and checked for accuracy. Throughout history prior to the printing press, students learned by copying the recitations of their professor, who read aloud from a manuscript. [McLuhan 1964] Books were simply too expensive for every student to own, and this system of dictation benefited both parties; the student learned as he wrote and had a private copy at the end course while the professor was ensured a large, paying audience. [Hajnal 1959] This was the state of academia: One person reading to an entire lecture hall. If one could not afford the tuition to attend a lecture, the only other option was to buy a copy of the manuscript, which was likely to be just as expensive. However, this barrier to entry was removed with the introduction of the printing...

Other Essays Like From Manuscript to Bound Book: How the Printing Press Revolutionized 15th Century Literature

Oil vendors would remind: how to improve the yield efficiency of screw press

622 words - 3 pages extensive.In our province so far no one has the quality complaints, no case of major quality accidents occurred, users of oil press in our province quality complaints of products are manufactured from other provinces. 5. Press industry present situation analysis and development trend of the estimate Vegetable oil consumed every year our country population of 1.3 billion total) 1001 t, due to the low level of rural oil industrial productivity, the

The expansion of suffrage with the passing of the 15th, the 19th, and the 26th Amendments. How the right to vote has expanded over the years in this country

443 words - 2 pages Suffrage has come a long way. At first, only white men who owned property could vote. Today, anyone who is an American citizen at least 18 years of age, a resident of the State in which they want to vote, and registered to vote may take part in an election. It was not easy getting to where we are today. There were many things that contributed to the expansion of suffrage, including the passing of three very important amendments: the 15th, the

How Should The UN Be Reformed To Promote International Peace And Stability In The 21st Century?

2670 words - 11 pages : Allen & Unwin, 1993.Michael Dobbs, Madeleine Albright. A Twentieth Century Odyssey, New York, Henry Holt and Co., 1999.,Richard Holbrooke, To End a War, New York, The Modern Library, 1999.Sydney Dawson Bailey,. The procedure of the UN Security Council, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1988.Saul H. Mendolvitz and Burns H. Weston. Preferred Futures of the United Nations. New York. Transnational Publishers, Inc. 1997.Articles"A View from the Summit

Responses To Quotes From "Night" As Well As The Book As A Whole

1886 words - 8 pages first large change in Elie. It’s the change of boy of the bible to an empty body whose only purpose was to try to survive. This change occurred from his first night at the camp. As soon as he stepped off the train and was separated for his mother and sister; he didn’t know for how long, or what was going to happen to them. The other traumatic event that could have caused his change was him seeing people being forced into the furnace

How to Write a Book Report

949 words - 4 pages helpful? If there are no illustrations, should there have been? * Who would benefit from reading this book? * How does the book compare to other books in the field? * It can be worthwhile to do an on-line search to get a sense for the author’s history, other books, * University appointments, graduate advisor, and so on. This can provide you with useful context. STRUCTURE OF BOOK REPORT Introduction * A general description of

Aibaleen Essay from the Book the Help

656 words - 3 pages through a hard time because of the cold that she is and she works very hard for Mrs.Leefolt but mrs Leefolt treats her like crap and is very harsh to her. Even though everything that Aibileen does for her and her family. For example on page 18 mrs Leefolt is very mean to Aibileen and tells her " from now on you won't be using the guest bathroom, you will be using that one out there in the garage now, you understand ?" So Leefolt is making her use

Taking On The Press By Melvyn Bernard Zerman, "Helpfulness To The Student Journalist"

2978 words - 12 pages Helpfulness to Student JournalistZerman's Taking on the Press is a must read for all student journalists. This text discusses the conflict between the first amendment rights of the press and those of individuals and of the government, using well-known cases to demonstrate how delicately these rights are balanced. Zerman provides a history of the struggles of the press to retain their freedoms, from as far back as 1476 where a license had been

Short Bio on Cecil Beaton Photographer from the 20th century

360 words - 2 pages Cecil Beaton PhotographyFrom his in house portrait studio to high fashion portraits portrayed in Vogue, Cecil Beaton has captured the inner beauty of the world's most famous people and events known to the 20th century. Cecil Beaton was born in London and lived from 1904 to 1980. Cecil took an interest to photography at an early with his collection of photographs, post cards, and snap shots taken during family vacations. At the early age of 20

Peanut oil press users to share the truth about your operating principle of it under your

520 words - 3 pages . Peanut oil, choline, also to improve the human brain's memory, slow decline of brain function. Benefits also makes a lot of peanut oil peanut oil press sold, sales in the market is also highly climb. Many users do not know how to go home after buying the operation press but also pieces of hard, or that some do not understand or doubt during the operation, the following, as we briefly introduce the relevant principles of operation and use peanut oil

FIRST screw press equipment during maintenance please be sure to note the following points

543 words - 3 pages Any machine in use for some maintenance should be carried out, then the FIRST screw press is no exception, doing maintenance please be sure to note the following, in order to make the life of our screw press used more in length. 1. When no suction pump overhaul, if the case of dirt clogging oil network, should washable grease filter. If it is the oil used for a long time, because the precipitate adhering to the inlet valves and causes the

How To Protect Your Network From Cybersecurity

2362 words - 10 pages How to Protect Your Network From Cyber Attacks There are three measures network administrators can take to avoid the types of network attacks that plagued U.S. and South Korean websites including, NASDAQ, NYSE, Yahoo!'s financial page and the Washington Post. The three areas to focus on are network based mitigation, host based mitigation and proactive measures. Network based mitigation * Install IDS/IPS with the

Related Papers

Johannes Gutenberg, Inventor Of The Printing Press

1134 words - 5 pages Johannes Gutenberg, Inventor of the Printing Press Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg, or commonly know as Johann Gutenberg, was the inventor of the printing press. He was born in Mainz around 1397 and lived until around 1468. He is most known for his inventing of a movable type, that used metals and alloys, and a press that used an oil-based ink. This printing method was used up until the 20th century

Art History Through The 15th Century

1314 words - 6 pages Art History through the 15th Century Introduction Art is an interesting aspect of life that a society cannot afford to lose. Art has been practiced for many years and is still under practice because of its rich heritage and many other importance’s that cannot be overruled. The collection and perseveration of pieces of art is a noble undertaking and those that have been given the responsibility of ensuring that a piece of art has to be

The Impact Of Technology On Music Is Overwhelming. Technological Advancements In The Last Century Have Revolutionized The Way We Make, Market And Listen To Music

540 words - 3 pages THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY IN MUSIC BYMusic technology might be defined as any form of technology, which helps a musician to make music. The impact of technology on music is overwhelming. Technological advancements in the last century have revolutionized the way we make, market and listen to music. To be specific, the invention and evolution of samplers, synthesizers and computer technology has changed the way music is now produced.Music

Best Practices To Follow While Shopping From Online Printing Companies:

616 words - 3 pages purchasing. It is indeed an expedient mode to do shopping but one has to be cautious about billing procedures and shipment schedules. There is a variety of printing companies which are providing on line services worldwide. First step to shop online is that you should use an effective antivirus to free your computer from malware. The second step before placing an online order is that you verify whether the printing company you are trading with is