Fron Lincoln To Present A Brief History Of Legal Education In The United States

1204 words - 5 pages

From Lincoln to Present

A Brief History of Legal Education in the United States

By: Debra Samora

The study of law has gone through several changes since the American colonial period and my research has suggested that there were in fact many changes. One change I found most interesting is that originally there was no system of legal education.
In the early 18th century, local training developed largely through apprenticeship – a system of “on the job” training. Those wanting to become lawyers in the colonial period sought out an established lawyer, paid a fee, and got practical experience working at the lawyer’s office as well as more academic learning by reading legal ...view middle of the document...

During the second half of the 19th century, the law school started to gain momentum and slowly began to replace the apprenticeship model and became the standard way to educate legal professionals.
In 1850 the law school’s program was a one-year course of study, with lectures and text books on various topics, used for instruction. In 1858 a professor by the name of Theodore Dwight started working at a newly-established school at Columbia University called the School of Jurisprudence. There he developed a formal program of law, using lectures, examinations, recitations , quizzes, and moot trials and Columbia University became the best law school around un 1870.
In addition, Dwight was one of the founders and influential leaders of the bar organization of the city of New York. He also introduced the idea of “diploma privilege” for entrance to the bar. Prior to its introduction, no formal education was required to enter the profession. The “diploma privilege” which arranged for graduates to be admitted to the bar automatically after the examination. It was soon adopted by other law schools. Currently, however, the “diploma privilege is not used today, the last state to recognize it was Wisconsin who retained it until 1989.
In the late 18th and 19th centuries, the emergence of science and scientific studies was becoming more strongly felt in academic and intellectual thinking, and law was included as one of the areas that could lend itself to the “scientific method.”
In 1870 a practicing lawyer by the name of Christopher Columbus Langdell who studied at Harvard Law School under the lecture-textbook method and was a proponent of law as a science and its importance in understanding the approach to legal instruction. He introduced the the idea to Harvard and was shortly thereafter made dean of the Law School.
Once he was appointed to the position at Harvard, he began to make changes. He is most well-known for instituting a way of learning based on the premise that law was a science and, as such, its principles could be discovered by looking at the data. The abrupt changes in the form of legal education caused an outcry.
In addition, he also established the entrance requirement of a bachelor degree, or an entrance examination. He extended the length of study from 1 to 2 years, and would eventually change it to 3. He then gave the ordered the curriculum in order of core courses first followed by advanced classes. Instituted full time teachers of law, and imposed final examinations for students to proceed to second year courses.
He believed that no experience was necessary to teach law, merely professors who have been trained academically in the law. These were radical ideas...

Other Essays Like Fron Lincoln to Present - a Brief History of Legal Education in the United States

United States v. Carroll Towing Co., 159 F.2d 169 Brief

445 words - 2 pages bargee was not present they were not aware of its leakage. The Anna C. sunk.History:First filed in the District court of the United States of America for the Eastern District of New York. The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. was sued by the Conners Marine Co., and the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. won. The Grace Line Co. was sued and defeated by Carroll Towing Co. Grace Line Co. appealed.Issues:1. Whether a barge owner should be considered slack in the care

The History of Domestic Violence in the United States

613 words - 3 pages Historically, legal and social traditions in the United States have permitted and supported the abuse of women and children by the male head of household. This historical phenomenon helps explain why women are the primary victims of domestic violence. In this country, civil rights and legal responsibilities were first granted to free, property-owning men. Wives, children, and slaves were considered "chattel" or personal property of male

Geologic History of the United States

1721 words - 7 pages , which must have formed in calmer due to its graded nature, was on the outer margins of the marine canyon from a fan deposit. These characteristics point to an ancient turbidity current as well as volcanism most likely due to subduction. This phase is consistent with the plate tectonic synthesis of the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the North American Plate as it shows ancient marine characteristics and present onshore volcanism, which are

History Of The United States From 1877 To 1917: Industrial Revolution

1190 words - 5 pages History of the United States from 1877 to 1917: Industrial Revolution There are five important things that every American citizen needs to know about the time period from 1877 to 1917: #5. The 1896 Presidential elections in which William McKinley was elected, marked one of the most important elections of the 19th century since the beginning and the end of Civil War when Abraham Lincoln was the President. The 1896 elections were highly

How to Brief a Legal Research Memoranda

994 words - 4 pages education. Today many immigrants do not have to sit at the end of the bus or be denying the proper education. Certain municipality required the students to be resident within their district in order to be grant access to their school. The law states that you must be a legal resident or citizen in order to obtain rights or show that you are in the process of obtaining legal status within this country. The civil right Act of 1964 help many

Diversity in the United States of America

1107 words - 5 pages could get. I am a White female of no particular religion. I am neither young nor old. I have no disabilities. I am lucky that I do not suffer from discrimination. I am aware that, despite many advances in society, there is still a fair amount of discrimination in the United States. As we move into the future I hope that education will bring us to a post-racial society. My hope is that all people will learn about all types of lifestyles and through

Jsb Market Research : the Future of the Feminine Hygiene Market in the United States to 2018

2984 words - 12 pages The Future of the Feminine Hygiene Market in the United States to 2018 Released On 29th October 2014 Synopsis The Future of the Feminine Hygiene Market in the United States to 2018 is the result of extensive market research. The report presents detailed analysis on the Feminine Hygiene consumption trends in the United States, historic and forecast Feminine Hygiene consumption volumes and values at market and category level, brand share

A Contemplative Look Into Cuban Migration To The United States

1872 words - 8 pages democratic government decreased from 41% in 2000 to 32% in 2004” (Pew Hispanic Center, 2006). The Cuban American is a strong and resilient cultural group of the United States. Cuban Americans in Miami have helped make America stronger economically, culturally richer, and possibly improved political standings. The Cuban American history is one we can draw many lessons from because they have been able to overcome great oppression but still accomplish

A Brief History of Credit

1135 words - 5 pages A Brief History of Credit Credit has become something that is very much taken advantage of by our modern society. Most people couldn’t imagine not being able to charge something that they want but don’t have the money for at right now. Some people even depend on their credit card for necessities such as grocery shopping between paychecks. The first real public use of “modern” credit was proposed in 1949 and made its debut sometime in 1950 in

How to Solve the Healthcare Issue in the United States

670 words - 3 pages . Although many people in the United States would like to incorporate a universal health care system into our government, there are others who know the problems the country would face if given the chance. That is why I would like to introduce a few new and effective ideas that would help people with no medical insurance receive health care. The current president or the next president, through the appointing of a bipartisan commission, could take the

A Brief History of Translation

1060 words - 5 pages A BRIEF HISTORY OF TRANSLATION From 3000 BC onwards (Ancient Egypt) Translation became important in the West from 300 BC • Romans took over Greek culture • To enrich their native tongue/literature (not just imitate) • sense for sense not word for word (Cicero 106-43 BC, Horace 65-8 BC) • Considerable licence 12th-15th century • 1492: Spanish kings/queens reconquered Spain from Moors • Toledo School of translators translated Arabic versions of

Related Papers

Bilingual Education In The School Systems Of The United States

1401 words - 6 pages . Bilingual education from kindergarten or earlier is not a common practice in the United States which is greatly disadvantageous to the students. Bilingualism has many positive effects on physical and mental health, and it even has social and emotional benefits. It has been proven that bilingualism can have positive effects on the mind as early as seven month of age, and some researchers suggest that the mind is able to absorb a new language

Affects Of Spanish On Business And Education In The United States

1719 words - 7 pages occupants of this country would be Hispanic. "In 1950 fewer than four million U.S. residents were from Spanish-speaking countries" (Hispanic Americans, 2008, Para. 1). That is ten times their total population over the last 58 years. This easily makes this group the fastest growing minority group and the largest minority group in the United States. Without a doubt, this kind of growth will have its affects. From the east coast to the west coast and

Education: Where Has The United States Gone Wrong?

1168 words - 5 pages In the United States, equality is and has always been something strived for. It is a nation proud to be known for its progress in regards to equality in religious, racial, and philosophical differences. In the education system, however, many decisions regarding equality have resulted in negative consequences. We have chosen quantity over quality, and our youth are suffering from a lackluster education program because of this. In America

A Short History Of The United States

3434 words - 14 pages Study Questions for APUSH Summer Assignment 2010 A Short History of the United States (Remini) Chapter 1 - "Discovery and Settlement of the New World"Founding of St. Augustine (1565)Founding of Roanoke (1585)Founding of Jamestown (1607)Founding of Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)First Africans arrive in British Colonies (1619)Mayflower Compact written (1620)End of Anglo-Powhatan Wars (1644)King Philip's War (1678)Height of First Great