In this report I will explain the fuel systems in an automobile. I will cover different parts and how they work. First thing to do is explain how the fuel system works. The purpose of the fuel system is to store and supply fuel to the cylinder chamber where it can be mixed with air then vaporized and burned to produce energy. The fuel, which can be either gas or diesel is stored in a fuel tank. A fuel pump draws the fuel from the gas tank through lines and brings it through a fuel filter. Next it goes to either a carburetor or fuel injector and then delivered to the cylinder chamber for combustion.
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The fuel pump is the device that draws the fuel from the fuel tank through the fuel lines, to the fuel filter and then to the engine’s carburetor or injectors. There are two types of fuel pumps: mechanical and electrical. The mechanical fuel pump is bolted on the side of the engine block or on the side of the cover of the timing gear. The electrical fuel pump is located inside or outside of the fuel tank.
The diagram below is of an electrical fuel pump.
Electric fuel pumps offer important advantages over mechanical pumps. Because electrical pumps maintain constant fuel pressure, they aid in starting and reduce vapor lock problems. There are four basic types of electric fuel pumps and they are: diaphragm, plunger, bellows, and impeller or rotary. In-tank electric fuel pumps are usually rotary type. The diaphragm, plunger, and bellows are usually called the demand style. This means, when the ignition is turned on that the pump begins operation. All types shut off automatically when the fuel line is pressurized. So when there is a demand for more fuel, then the pump gives more, and less for when less is needed.
In the diagram below is a mechanical fuel pump.
Next are the fuel lines. Steel lines and flexible hoses carry the fuel from the tank to the engine. When servicing or replacing the steel lines, copper or aluminum must never be used. Steel lines must be replaced with steel. When replacing flexible rubber hoses, proper hose must be used. Ordinary rubber such as used in vacuum or water hose will soften and deteriorate. Be careful to route all hoses away from the exhaust system when repairing any fuel lines.
After the fuel travels through the hoses it goes to the fuel filter. On fuel injected vehicles, the fuel filter is connected in the fuel line between the fuel tank and the engine. Many of these filters are mounted under the...