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Functionalism, Maxism Essay

4332 words - 18 pages

Question

Use sociological terminology to describe the principal sociological perspectives of Functionalism, Marxism, Interactionism, collectivism, postmodernism and The New Right.

Functionalism

This is the sociological approach that sees the social institutions of the society as working in agreement with each other, making specific and clear contributions towards the running of society.

Functionalism is one of the oldest theories that are still used today. In functionalism society is made up of different social institution such as education, religion, media etc that work together to keep the society secure. Functionalism relies very much on these institutions that for society ...view middle of the document...

Looking at the learning institution , functionalists argued that the education sector play a significant role in western society, as it ensure that people acquired working skills in order to contribute toward development of society.
Functionalists believe that the social institutions are place for socialization, as people learn new ideas within the social institution which would help them to wider their knowledge and experience on different kinds of ideology.

It was stated by Talcott Parson, that “society as a system was made up of interrelated institutions which contributed to its smooth running and continuity. He thought that the main role of an institution was to socialise individuals and ensure that they understood the underlying values of the society and behaved in acceptable ways”. (Billingham, M. BTEC National Diploma in Health & Social Care Book 1, unit 7, pg 342

Marxism
Marxism is centred on political and economic perspective and how western society is been affected by the economical system. This mean that people lifestyles is influence by money as low income people are being misuse by the upper class as the working class sell their labour to them (upper class) for a small wages in order to be able to support themselves and families. However before the existence of capitalism, people live in a feudal society where they produce their products and were later asked to give small part of their produces to their queen or king who governed the land. In feudal society, there was changes in the life of people as their labour help to improved their lifestyles rather than surviving.
As the capitalism came into being, it changes the values, norms and beliefs that keep people in unity. In the capitalist state, working class who are unable to meet their basic needs were left with no choice but to sell their labour to the ruling class who in turn pay lower wages to make huge profits for themselves (ruling class). People who own private industries called the bourgeoisie class were exploiting the proletariat class to work in their private industries thereby promoting the selfish desire of the ruling class, as the (ruling class) in turn sell the produces manufacture by the working class to the society in order to generate more income or profits for themselves (upper class).
Also, the political power in the capitalist states was shared based on private industries own by people. State power giving to the ruling class are use to oppressed the working class by ensuring that they (working class) work in the personal interest of the bourgeoisie class as well as using state power to protect and safeguard their property.
“These means of production are privately owned and most people depend on the owners for employment. Marx argued that workers produce more than is needed for employers to pay them wages and this extra by workers is what Marx called the surplus value and provides profit for the employer. for example, in a burger shop chain, it is...

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