Fundamentalism Essay

2457 words - 10 pages

The belief that modernisation would lead to an increase in secularisation has been unfounded:
Led to a deep sense of alienation and and stimulated a search for an identity/ an anchor.
Global consumerist culture led to an awareness of relative deprivation which people believe they can deal with more effectively as a group.
Rapid changes and dislocations have led, esp in the 3rd world to a desire to resist the “ decadent culture of the west).
Has also been fuelled by political changes:
Fall of communism led to a temporary vacuum which religious fundamentalism grew to fill.
Egs: Israel/ Palestine.
Soviet occupied Afghanistan: US backed Islamic fundamentalist Mujahadeen.
1965 ...view middle of the document...

With his original Scottish Royalist followers and his new Covenanter allies, King Charles II became the greatest threat facing the new English republic. In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England.
He arrived in Scotland on 22 July 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh. By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. A Scottish army, assembled under the command of David Leslie, tried to block the retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland.
In July 1651, Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 July 1651). The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England. Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. The next year, 1652, saw the mopping up of the remnants of Royalist resistance, and under the terms of the "Tender of Union".
Despite the triumph of calvinist forces in the south and lowlands of Scotland, many highland clans remained either Catholic or Episcopalian in sympathy. The Catholic Clan MacDonald was subject to the Glencoe Massacre for being late in pledging loyalty to the Protestant King William III in 1691. And Highland clans rallied to the support of Catholic claimants to the British throne in the failed Jacobite Risings of the erstwhile Stuart King James III in 1715 and Charles Edward Stuart in 1745.
[edit] Denmark
In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. Following the death of King Frederick I in 1533, war broke out between Catholic followers of Count Christoph of Oldenburg, and the firmly Lutheran Count Christian of Holstein. After losing his main support in Lubeck, Christoph quickly fell to defeat, finally losing his last stronghold of Copenhagen in 1536. Lutheranism was immediately established, the Catholic bishops were imprisoned, and monastic and church lands were soon confiscated to pay for the armies that had brought Christian to power. In Denmark this increased royal revenues by 300%.
Thirty Years' War. In 1625 Christian IV of Denmark, who was also the Duke of Holstein, agreed to help the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire by intervening militarily. Denmark's cause was aided by France which, together with England, had agreed to help subsidize the war. Christian had himself appointed war leader of the Lower Saxon Alliance and raised an army of 20,000-35,000...

Other Essays Like Fundamentalism

Military Dictatorship May Be Necessary To Save Pakistan From Islamic Fundamentalism

1152 words - 5 pages In 1999, General Pervez Musharraf overthrew Pakistan's civilian government in a coup. While he has been criticized by some both within and outside of Pakistan for failing to restore democracy in that country, David Tahir Mehmood argues in the following viewpoint that Musharraf should instead be praised for taking actions against Islamic militants in Pakistan. He compares Musharraf to Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk), who as military dictator of Turkey

Evaluate the Postmodernist Explanation of the Role and Function of Religion in Contemporary Society. (40 Marks)

1096 words - 5 pages consequence, repeated exposure to alternative versions of the truth may undermine people’s confidence in them all, and encourage the view that the truth is ‘relative’. Secondly, the post-modern society has lead to a growth of fundamentalism in all world religions. According to Holden (2002) one interpretation of the growth of fundamentalist such as Jehovah’s witnesses is that they offer hope, direction and certainty in a world which seem

Islamic Marriage

537 words - 3 pages article regarding life in Iran. "Islamic fundamentalism establishes its thesis on the differences between the sexes and the conclusion that the male is superior, and hence, the female is a slave at his service. A parliamentarian in Iran is on record as saying, "Women must accept the reality of men dominating them, and the world must recognize the fact that men are superior." "Fundamentalism conceives of woman as sinister and satanic; she is

Conflict And Instability

1096 words - 5 pages conflict and instability between religious groups * Contradicting ideas about religion | Migration of Islam faith into Palestine * Jews migrated to what they believed was their holy land * Palestine was already a Islamic based country * Jews takeover of the Palestine land has led to conflict between faiths * Had led to radical action e.g. young girl bombed supermarket | Fundamentalism | Religion is a major source of instability

Religion and Social Problems

2356 words - 10 pages , “social actions such as those involving large numbers of people, could lead to large scale social change” Krieken & Holborn, 1996, p. 696). In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1930), Weber demonstrates that Calvinist spiritual beliefs and values of “hard work, thrift and worldly success” resulted in the establishment of ethics that would promote Capitalism. On the opposite spectrum, fundamentalism according to Donald Taylor

Crazy Church People

2185 words - 9 pages settings, kitchens, shops, and markets hoping to find the love that God has to offer so freely (Gonzales, 2010, p. 113). The homogenization of basic Christian religious beliefs in today's society causes the non-believers to see the Christian believers as a cultist or pro-religious individual capable of only judging and condemning others. This challenge of Christian fundamentalism is as controversial today as it was back in the days of the early

Christian & Pro-Choice

1515 words - 7 pages describe Christian Right morals would be fundamentalist. Hartmut Krauss defined fundamentalism as “selective politicization of the religious for the purpose of establishing, carrying out or restoring, and defending or maintaining authoritarian-repressive relations of government” (Ramet, 2005, p. 434). In its quest for moral absolutes, the Christian Right stands in contradiction to the freedom of the democratic principles on which America was founded

Study Guide Chapter 3

1533 words - 7 pages change within the caste hierarchy; Today many of India’s “Untouchables” leave Hinduism for Buddhism; They find Buddhism more hospitable than Hinduism. Some of the points of view of fundamentalism that are shared across religions include the desire to preserve a religion’s traditional world view; desire to resist the efforts of religious liberals to reform a religion’s traditional worldview; desire to revive the role of religion in private and

My Son The Fanatic - A Movie Review

690 words - 3 pages generation and cultural gap. It makes the viewer think about differences, intolerance and religious violence. It is highly recommendable for lovers of European cinematography and for all those who are intrigued by the problem of Islamic (fanatical) fundamentalism.

Afghanistan

1111 words - 5 pages People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), a Communist party founded in 1965. In 1967 it had split into two rival factions, known as Khalq (Masses), a more radical group, and Parcham (Flag), a moderate, pro-Soviet group. There are many guerrilla groups, known collectively as mujahideen, divided along ethnic lines and degrees of traditionalism and Muslim fundamentalism. The Taliban was under control until recently with the US attacking due to

Stereotyping Religion

988 words - 4 pages . There is a sect, or branch, of this religion known as Islamic-Fundamentalism, among which is the terrorist group known as Al-Qaeda. They are the ones responsible for the attacks. Everyone I have ever heard talk about these attacks also talk about how terrible the group is. They say that they’ll go straight to hell and that they’re completely insane when, really, they could say the same thing about everyone in every other religion of the world

Related Papers

Terrorism And Fundamentalism Essay

3297 words - 14 pages Sanchez 10Audiel SanchezPolitical Science 424Final PaperTerrorism and FundamentalismIt has been over ten years since the attack of 9/11; many lost their lives and loved ones in a horrific tragedy. Today many have a hard time talking about the incident because we continue to "find remains of the 2,996 people who died that day" (9/11 Commission). Since this horrible incident, we see many news reports use the term "fundamentalism", "terrorists

Increase Of Fundamentalism In Society Essay

620 words - 3 pages ESSAY Question: Using material from Item A and elsewhere, examine some of the reasons for the growth of fundamentalism. (18 marks) There has been a lot of discussion amongst sociologists about the rise of fundamentalism within society and the reasons for this. This essay will explore four reasons which are: the influence of secularization and religious teachings, the fear of science and the influence of the media. Secularization within

"Religious Fundamentalism And Terrorism Are Products Of Globalisation

2834 words - 12 pages PLT3980: Issues in Global Politics "Religious fundamentalism and terrorism are products of globalisation. Discuss." Following evidence of a revitalisation in religious faith1 throughout the world, and a series of terrorist incidents purportedly motivated by religious fundamentalism, various commentators have argued globalisation has ushered in new forms of radical religious belief and expression and a unique form of

Fundamentalism Describes People Or Groups That Defend Tradition And Believe In The Literal Truth Of Sacred Texts

883 words - 4 pages Fundamentalism describes people or groups that defend tradition and believe in the literal truth of sacred texts, they seek to return back to basics and do not like change. Giddens argues that fundamentalism has grown in reaction to globalisation and people are joining fundamentalist movements because in today’s society individuals are constantly faced with choice, uncertainty and risk. Fundamentalism offers individuals security and avoids any