The belief that modernisation would lead to an increase in secularisation has been unfounded:
Led to a deep sense of alienation and and stimulated a search for an identity/ an anchor.
Global consumerist culture led to an awareness of relative deprivation which people believe they can deal with more effectively as a group.
Rapid changes and dislocations have led, esp in the 3rd world to a desire to resist the â€œ decadent culture of the west).
Has also been fuelled by political changes:
Fall of communism led to a temporary vacuum which religious fundamentalism grew to fill.
Egs: Israel/ Palestine.
Soviet occupied Afghanistan: US backed Islamic fundamentalist Mujahadeen.
1965 ...view middle of the document...
With his original Scottish Royalist followers and his new Covenanter allies, King Charles II became the greatest threat facing the new English republic. In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England.
He arrived in Scotland on 22 July 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh. By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. A Scottish army, assembled under the command of David Leslie, tried to block the retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland.
In July 1651, Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 July 1651). The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England. Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. The next year, 1652, saw the mopping up of the remnants of Royalist resistance, and under the terms of the "Tender of Union".
Despite the triumph of calvinist forces in the south and lowlands of Scotland, many highland clans remained either Catholic or Episcopalian in sympathy. The Catholic Clan MacDonald was subject to the Glencoe Massacre for being late in pledging loyalty to the Protestant King William III in 1691. And Highland clans rallied to the support of Catholic claimants to the British throne in the failed Jacobite Risings of the erstwhile Stuart King James III in 1715 and Charles Edward Stuart in 1745.
In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. Following the death of King Frederick I in 1533, war broke out between Catholic followers of Count Christoph of Oldenburg, and the firmly Lutheran Count Christian of Holstein. After losing his main support in Lubeck, Christoph quickly fell to defeat, finally losing his last stronghold of Copenhagen in 1536. Lutheranism was immediately established, the Catholic bishops were imprisoned, and monastic and church lands were soon confiscated to pay for the armies that had brought Christian to power. In Denmark this increased royal revenues by 300%.
Thirty Years' War. In 1625 Christian IV of Denmark, who was also the Duke of Holstein, agreed to help the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire by intervening militarily. Denmark's cause was aided by France which, together with England, had agreed to help subsidize the war. Christian had himself appointed war leader of the Lower Saxon Alliance and raised an army of 20,000-35,000...