Through out education and its progress many Presidents have put forth plans to help increase achievement in the United States school systems.(Moores, 2004) From the Department of Education, Washington D.C. educators were given a toolkit to help them understand and achieve what the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was asking from the educational systems. Educators have been asked to use the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 goal, of having every child making the grade on state-defined education standards by the end of the 2013-2014 school year. (Department of Education, 2003)
Considering these following goals from NCLB: All children in America will start school ready to learn and American ...view middle of the document...
What are the theories behind these discrepancies?
3. What are different ways to overcome these discrepancies?
What Are the Discrepancies in Test Scores?
From the research that has been done on Racial/Ethnic discrepancies, the researchers agree that consistently African-Americans and Hispanics score lower than Americans in vocabulary, reading, and mathematics tests. [Although] it has narrowed since 1970, African-Americans still score below 75 percent of whites on most standardized tests. (Jencks & Phillips, 1998).
Research also describes “readiness”
In a national survey of more than 3,500 kindergarten teachers in the late 1990s, 46 percent of teachers indicated that at least half of the children in their classrooms were having problems following directions, some because of poor academic skills and others because of difficulties working in a group. Problems were more common among black and Hispanic children than among whites. (Brook-Gunn, McLanahan & Rouse, 2005)
This evidence and data that has been collected shows that the different cultures (race/ethnicity) are not being prepared and are not ready for coming into school. The African-Americans and Hispanics are showing results of being behind academically and “the self-regulatory aspects” of being ready for school. Later, leading into continually not scoring well in their later years of education and assessments that they are given. (Brook-Gunn, McLanahan & Rouse, 2005)
What Are the Theories Behind these Discrepancies?
Although racial and ethnic gaps in educational achievement have narrowed over the past thirty years, test score disparities among American students remain significant. (Brook-Gunn, McLanahan & Rouse, 2005) These discrepancies have shrunk when students of different race/ethnicity do attend the same school. (Jencks & Phillips, 1998)
One of the main reasons researchers have found as a theory of why there are these discrepancies between whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics is the socioeconomic status. Not having a computer, having access to as many books at home, the chance to visit other places, and going to museums are some of the conclusions that have played a factor in these discrepancies. (Duncan, Ludwig, & Magnuson, 2007)
Differences in children's learning environments contribute to large gaps in test scores, even among preschoolers. Greg Duncan and Katherine Magnuson document that 10 percent of white children, as against 37 percent of Hispanic and 42 percent of black children, live in poverty. (Duncan, Ludwig, & Magnuson, 2007)
From several researchers they have provided with evidence that these gaps in socioeconomic and cognitive skills stay with students through out their lives, causing the gaps we are seeing through out their school career. (Duncan, Ludwig, & Magnuson, 2007)
According to Brooks-Gunn, McLanahan, & Rouse, there could be other factors into the achievement gaps that are still in their infancy of being researched; such as health,...