Gas Equilibriums: Examples Of Reversible Reactions

1618 words - 7 pages

Gas Equilibriums: examples of Reversible Reactions
Q1. Identify the general chemical and physical characteristics of gas equilibriums as a group. Explain the forward and reverse reaction mechanisms. Use nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen iodide as examples and explain how equilibrium is reached.
The general chemical characteristic of gas equilibriums is when the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time. This is known as the state of reversible reaction. At this state, pressure, density, colour and concentration can be recognised. At equilibrium, both the forward and backward reactions are still continuing because the rates of the forward and backward reactions are equal. ...view middle of the document...

Explain the effect of the value of k on the production of products. Use nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen iodide as examples.

aA + bB cC + dD

Kc is called the equilibrium concentration constant. The square brackets refer to concentrations in mol.L-1. The products always appear on the top line of the expression (the numerator), and the reactants always appear on the bottom (the denominator). Each reactant and product is raised to the power of the appropriate stoichiometric coefficient (a, b, c or d) from the balanced chemical equation (i.e. the coefficients become the exponents).
The equilibrium concentration constant can be used to find the equilibrium pressure constant.
Example 1:
It follows then that K1, the equilibrium constant for:

at equilibrium,

is the reciprocal of K2, because by the rule just given:

at equilibrium,

Example 2:
It follows then that K1, the equilibrium constant for:
N2O4 (g) 2NO2 (g)

at equilibrium,

is the reciprocal of K2, because by the rule just given:

at equilibrium,

The effects of the value of k on the production of products can be explained by:
Q > K The products must decrease and the reactants will increase.
Q = K There is equilibrium.
Q < K The reactants must decrease and the products will increase.
Q refers to systems that are not necessarily at equilibrium.
K is the equilibrium constant
Note:
o If the value of k falls between 10-4 and 10+4 for a given reversible reaction, then there will be significant amounts of reactants and products.
o If the value of k falls below 10-4 for a given reversible reaction, then there will be mostly reactants.
o If the value of k falls above 10+4 for a given reversible reaction, then there will be mostly products.

Q3. Explain how Le Chatelier’s principles can be used to push the equilibrium of the gas systems to favour reactants or products. Use nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen iodide as examples.
The equilibrium of the gas systems can be pushed to favour reactants or products by Le Chatelier’s principle. Le Chatelier’s principle is ‘if a system at equilibrium is disturbed, then the system adjusts itself so as to minimise the disturbance.’
Equilibrium is ‘disturbed’:
o Changing pressure
Example 1:
1 mole + 1 mole 2 moles

If pressure is increased in this reaction at equilibrium, then it will still be equilibrium.
Example 2:
N2O4 (g) 2NO2 (g) 1 mole 2 moles
If pressure is increased in this reaction at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts towards left (because it has less number of moles of gases) resulting in the formation of more N2O4.
o Changing concentration: The addition or removal of a product or reactant instantaneously alters the concentration of that species in the reaction mixture.
Example 1: Add reactant

If the reactant is increased, then the equilibrium shifts towards right resulting in the formation of more HI.
Example 2: Remove a product
N2O4 (g) 2NO2...

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