Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. Women face discrimination and oppression in almost every sphere of public and private life. Their forms may be subtle or non subtle.They face gender segregation at the workplace, they are not considered for promotions over men, a phenomenon called "glass ceiling" describes this situation. In private lives they are victim of patriarchal societies that fathoms on the subordination of women statuses and roles. The social institutions are so structuralised that women get subordinate roles than men. Institutions like family, marriage and rituals like dowry are just weapons to propagate the same. Dowry deaths, female foeticide, acid attacks, eve- teasing, molestation and rapes are some extreme forms of oppression of women.
Income disparity between genders stems from processes that determine the quality of jobs and earnings ...view middle of the document...
The term glass ceiling implies that invisible or artificial barriers exist which prevent women from advancing within their jobs or receiving promotions. These barriers exist in spite of the achievements or qualifications of the women and still exist when other characteristics that are job-relevant such as experience, education, and abilities are controlled for. The inequality effects of the glass ceiling are more prevalent within higher-powered or higher income occupations, with fewer women holding these types of occupations. The glass ceiling effect also indicates the limited chances of women for income raises and promotion or advancement to more prestigious positions or jobs. As women are prevented by these artificial barriers, from either receiving job promotions or income raises, the effects of the inequality of the glass ceiling increase over the course of a woman’s career.
Statistical discrimination is also cited as a cause for income disparities and gendered inequality in the workplace. Statistical discrimination indicates the likelihood of employers to deny women access to certain occupational tracks because women are more likely than men to leave their job or the labor force when they become married or pregnant. Women are instead given positions that dead-end or jobs that have very little mobility.
As women entered the workforce in larger numbers since the 1960s, occupations have become segregated based on the amount femininity or masculinity presupposed to be associated with each occupation. Census data suggests that while some occupations have become more gender integrated (mail carriers, bartenders, bus drivers, and real estate agents),occupations including teachers, nurses, secretaries, and librarians have become female-dominated while occupations including architects, electrical engineers, and airplane pilots remain predominately male in composition.Based on the census data, women occupy the service sector jobs at higher rates than men. Women’s overrepresentation in service sector jobs, as opposed to jobs that require managerial work acts as a reinforcement of women and men into traditional gender roles that causes gender inequality.