GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ROMANIAN AND FRENCH
❖ French language has maximum twenty two consonants and sixteen vowels. French is notable for its uvular r, nasal vowels, and two processes affecting word-final sounds: liaison, a certain type of sandhi, wherein word-final consonants are not pronounced unless followed by a word beginning with a vowel; and elision, wherein a final vowel is elided before vowel initial words.
❖ There are 16 vowels in French, not all of which are used in every dialect: /a/, /ɑ/, /e/, /ɛ/, /ə/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, /y/, /u/, /œ/, /ø/, plus the nasalized vowels /ɑ̃/, /ɛ̃/, /ɔ̃/ and /œ̃/. In France, the vowels /ɑ/ and /œ̃/ ...view middle of the document...
g. fort) or reduced to zero in some word-final positions. For other speakers, a uvular trill is also common, and an apical trill [r] occurs in some dialects.
❖ The phoneme inventory of Romanian consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels, and twenty consonants. In addition, as with all languages, other phonemes can occur occasionally in interjections or recent borrowings.
❖ Romanian has nine vowels; the more "exotic" ones are /ɨ/, /ə/ (also in stressed positions), and the diphthongs /e̯a/ and /o̯a/. Additionally, /ø/ and /y/ may appear in some borrowed words. There are also a large number of glide-vowel sequences which are, strictly speaking, not diphthongs. twenty-two consonants. The two approximants /j/ and /w/ can appear before or after any vowel, creating.
❖ While most of these vowels are relatively straightforward and similar or identical to those in many other languages, the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme and especially uncommon amongst Indo-European languages.
❖ In final positions after consonants, a short /i/ can be deleted, surfacing only as the palatalization of the preceding consonant (e.g. [mʲ]). Similarly, a deleted /u/ may prompt labialization of a preceding consonant, though this has ceased to carry any morphological meaning.
❖ h is not silent like in French, but represents the phoneme /h/, except in the digraphs ch /k/ and gh /g/.
❖ j represents /ʒ/, as in French.
❖ There are two letters with in Romanian a comma below, Ș and Ț, which represent the sounds /ʃ/ and /t͡s/. However, the allographs with a cedilla instead of a comma, Ş and Ţ, became widespread when pre-Unicode and early Unicode character sets did not include the standard form.
❖ In Romanian ă represents the schwa, /ə/.
❖ The letter e generally represents the mid front unrounded vowel [e], somewhat like in the English word set. However, the letter e is pronounced as ie [je] when it is the first letter of any form of the verb a fi "to be", or of a personal pronoun, for instance este /jeste/ "is" and el /jel/ “he”.This addition of the semivowel /j/ does not occur in more recent loans and their derivatives, such as eră "era", electric "electric" etc. Some words (such as iepure "hare", formerly spelled epure) are now written with the initial i to indicate the semivowel.
Vowel Chart Of Romanian
|Vowel |Description |Examples |
|/a/ |Open central unrounded |apă /ˈa.pə/ water |
|/e/ |Mid front unrounded |erou /eˈrow/ hero |
|/i/ |Close front unrounded |insulă /ˈin.su.lə/ island |
|/o/ |Mid back rounded |copil /koˈpil/ child |
|/u/ |Close back rounded |simplu /ˈsim.plu/ simple |
|/ə/ |Mid central unrounded |păros /pəˈros/ hairy |...