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Global Warming, Nature, Computer, Sports, School

5158 words - 21 pages

Journal of Tropical Forest Science 13(4): 601–620 (2001) 601
FORMATION AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY FORESTS
IN INDIA: A PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO WESTERN
GHATS IN SOUTH INDIA
D. M. Bhat, K. S. Murali & N. H. Ravindranath
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India
BHAT, D. M., MURALI, K. S. & RAVINDRANATH, N. H. 2001. Formation and
recovery of secondary forests in India: a particular reference to Western Ghats in south
India. This paper analyses the underlying causes of secondary forest formation and
recovery in India, particularly the Western Ghats region of south India, from precolonial
times to the present. In the pre-colonial period, ...view middle of the document...

The paper hypothesises that joint management of forests by governments and
communities, as well as policies to reduce dependence on fuelwood, may have paved
the way for this favourable development.
Key words: Secondary forests - Western Ghats - South India - plantations - forest
regeneration
BHAT, D. M., MURALI, K. S. & RAVINDRANATH, N. H. 2001. Pembentukan dan
pemulihan hutan sekunder di India: rujukan khusus kepada Ghats Barat di selatan
India. Artikel ini menganalisis sebab-sebab pembentukan dan pemulihan hutan
sekunder di India, khususnya di Ghats Barat, selatan India, dari zaman pra-penjajahan
hingga sekarang. Dalam zaman pra-penjajahan, pemburu, petani pindah dan petani
tetap merupakan pengguna tanah hutan yang utama. Terdapat juga penebangan
balak yang terhad oleh ketua penduduk tempatan dan raja. Pembentukan hutan
sekunder ekoran aktiviti pengekstrakan oleh penduduk dan kerajaan negeri adalah
terhad. Pengambilalihan hutan oleh kerajaan negeri untuk pengkomersialan balak
semasa zaman penjajahan, pemberian hak kepada penduduk tempatan, dan eksploitasi
hasil hutan secara berlebihan dari kawasan terhad oleh penduduk tempatan merupakan
faktor utama pembentukan hutan sekunder besar-besaran. Selepas merdeka, pengalihan
penggunaan tanah dan tekanan perindustrian menyebabkan berlakunya pembasmian
dan pendegradan hutan. Pada masa ini, litupan hutan adalah rendah secara relatif dan
602 Journal of Tropical Forest Science 13(4): 601–620 (2001)
hutan primer hanya wujud di kawasan laluan berbukit. Bagaimanapun, litupan hutan
telah stabil walaupun kepadatan penduduk bertambah. Kelulusan Akta Pemuliharaan
Hutan 1980 yang mengharamkan penebangan hutan mengurangkan tekanan
pengalihan hutan. Pada dekad yang lepas, pemulihan hutan sekunder usang dan
pemulihan hutan sekunder di atas tanah usang oleh penduduk menyebabkan
penstabilan litupan hutan. Artikel ini membuat andaian bahawa pengurusan hutan
secara bersama oleh kerajaan dan penduduk tempatan, berserta polisi untuk
mengurangkan pergantungan terhadap kayu api, mungkin mendorong kepada
perkembangan yang menggalakkan ini.
Introduction
India has a total land area of 329 million ha of which 43% is under cropping and
23% is classified under forests (Ministry of Environment and Forest 1999). Barren
lands, land under non-agricultural use, and cultivable waste lands constitute 74.8
million ha. The National Forest Policy of India (1952) stipulated that India as a
whole should aim at maintaining one-third of its total land area under forest for
securing ecological stability, but forest cover at present is 63.7 million ha, or only
19.4% of the land area (Forest Survey of India 1999).
Most forests in India have been disturbed significantly through logging,
clearfelling, grazing, fire, and the collection of fuelwood, fodder and non-timber
forest products. Thus, most remaining forests in India are secondary, primarily
post-extraction secondary forests arising after significant...

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