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Global Warming Paper 13

1158 words - 5 pages

Global warming is the current rise in the average temperature of Earth's oceans and atmosphere. The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and was initiated by human activities, especially those that increase concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.[2][3] This finding is recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries and is not rejected by any scientific body of national or international standing.[4][5][6][B]
During the 20th century, global surface temperature increased by about 0.74 °C (1.33 °F)[7][A] Using computer models of the climate system based on six ...view middle of the document...

[11]
The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a "dangerous anthropogenic interference".[12] As of May 2010, 192 states had ratified the protocol.[13] The only members of the UNFCCC that were asked to sign the treaty but have not yet ratified it are the USA and Afghanistan. Proposed responses to global warming include mitigation to reduce emissions, adaptation to the effects of global warming, and geoengineering to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or reflect incoming solar radiation back to space. According to a recent Gallup poll, people in most countries are more likely to attribute global warming to human activities than to natural causes. The major exception is the U.S., where nearly half the US population attributes global warming to natural causes despite overwhelming scientific opinion to the contrary.[14]
Contents [hide]
1 Temperature changes
2 External forcings
2.1 Greenhouse gases
2.2 Particulates and soot
2.3 Solar variation
3 Feedback
4 Climate models
5 Attributed and expected effects
5.1 Natural systems
5.2 Ecological systems
5.3 Social systems
6 Responses to global warming
6.1 Mitigation
6.2 Adaptation
6.3 Geoengineering
7 Views on global warming
7.1 Politics
7.2 Public opinion
7.3 Other views
8 Etymology
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
Temperature changes

Main article: Temperature record

Two millennia of mean surface temperatures according to different reconstructions, each smoothed on a decadal scale, with the instrumemtal temperature record overlaid in black.
Evidence for warming of the climate system includes observed increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.[15][16][17][18] The most common measure of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. Expressed as a linear trend, this temperature rose by 0.74 ± 0.18 °C over the period 1906–2005. The rate of warming over the last half of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole (0.13 ± 0.03 °C per decade, versus 0.07 °C ± 0.02 °C per decade). The urban heat island effect is estimated to account for about 0.002 °C of warming per decade since 1900.[19] Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0.13 and 0.22 °C (0.22 and 0.4 °F) per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Temperature is believed to have...

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