Impact of Globalization on Selected Non-Western Cultures
Globalization is defined as the “worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, human labor, finance capital, information, infectious diseases, and trade goods” (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, & McBride, 2008, p. 19). Globalization has or is occurring across the world but it has especially effected the non-Western cultures in dramatic and significant ways.
Two Examples of Globalization
The Korean War ended in 1953 and from that time until 1963 the southern Korean peninsula, or South Korea, changed very little. The country was lacking in industry and basic infrastructure due to ...view middle of the document...
This formed the building block of globalization as Tunisia was the first non-European country to sign a free trade agreement with the European Union (EU) (Saddem, 2001). This agreement allowed Tunisia to provide textiles to the majority of Europe and in return money began to flow into the country. Infrastructure investment increased four times, poverty levels dropped from 12.9% in 1980 to 4.2% in 2000 and home ownership soared to 80% (Versi, 2003; Saddem, 2001).
Prior to the agreement with Europe, Tunisia imported the majority of its required goods at increasing prices while the economy relied primarily on agriculture and those prices offered little change (Yol, 2009, p. 180). This economical mismatch caused increasing debt and unemployment.
Analyze an Example
Cause of Influence
South Korea began a swift and dramatic turnaround beginning in 1963 with the election of Park Chung-hee as president. His administration softened relations with Japan that had been, up until this time, very strained. This caused a dramatic influx of Japanese capital investment into South Korea (Lee & Kim, 2010). Park Chung-hee’s administration maintained complete control of the banks, business market and labor. This allowed South Korea to rapidly increase its economy (Lee & Kim, 2010). During this early period of expansion, the government inhibited worker’s rights and wages to keep money flowing back to companies so they could modernize (Lee & Kim, 2010).
Categorization of Influence
Park Chung-hee’s dictatorial administration as described above was a direct and intentional influence of South Korea’s globalization as well as the Japanese’s monetary investment. Park Chung-hee remained president until his 1973 assassination and throughout his reign Kim (1997, p. 3) says Park’s administration “played a central role by charting out the pace and method of industrialization”.
The rapid change from South Korea’s economy from agriculture to industry and manufacturing had a dramatic effect on the population. People who were farmers rapidly moved to laborers and began earning a regular paycheck. Before this transition, they had to wait for harvest to earn money and hope that the weather cooperated so they could earn enough to survive (Kim, 1997, p. 1). The move to a regular paycheck was initially a draw for workers but over time workers became disillusioned with low wages, poor working conditions and long working hours (Lee & Kim, 2010). Despite the initial support of the population, by the mid 1980’s there were escalating worker and management clashes because of the increasing gap between the many low wage workers and the few...