While climate impacts will vary on a regional scale, it is the tourism business that needs to take a look at today and tomorrow’s economic factors. While some of the benefits from climate change may accrue to individual farms or businesses, the cost of dealing with adverse climate impacts are typically borne by society as a whole. These costs to society will not be uniformly distributed but felt most among small businesses and Grand Traverse Bay. Here they will most likely to be affected by climate change such as, water, energy, transportation and public health systems. The costs of inaction are frequently neglected and typically not done. These costs include such expenses as rebuilding ...view middle of the document...
• Negative climate impacts will outweigh benefits for most sectors that provide essential goods and services to society.
• Climate change impacts will place immense strains on public sector budgets.
• Secondary effects of climate impacts can include higher prices, reduced income and job losses.
“These cost estimates may understate impacts on the economy and society to the extent that they simply cover what can be readily captured in monetary terms, and to the extent that they are calculated for the more likely future climate conditions rather than less likely but potentially very severe and abrupt changes., direct, indirect and induced costs on society and the economy provide a strong basis on which to justify actions to mitigate and adapt to climate change in Grand Traverse Bay”(Glick,2007). Projected increases in the climate will effect summer and winter temperatures in Michigan focusing on Grand Traverse Bay are expected to outweigh the predicted 20-40 percent rise in precipitation and result in an overall dryer climate. Dryer conditions will likely threaten the integrity and will disrupt ground water aquifer levels, recreational boating, and hydroelectric power production. The migration of plant and animal species northward will likely affect all aspects of the tourism industry in the state (Douglas, 2003). This is not only at Grand Traverse but all over.
Surrounded by four of the Great Lakes, temperature changes throughout the state are connected to the lake effects on temperature. For example, average January temperatures in Grand Traverse Bay are above 20°F. This is demonstrating the warming effect of the lake (Glick, 2007). The average temperature in the state has seen a clear trend upward throughout the last century. Another indicator of the rising temperatures in the state is the extent of ice cover in winter. For example, Grand Traverse Bay, located in the northern part of Michigan has experienced a decline in ice cover throughout the century. The number of years the Bay froze completely for every century since 1851 has declined significantly from an average of 8-10 years per decade back in the late 1800s, to only 3 frozen winter seasons between 1990 and 2000. This can really cause the climate to produce less frozen winters.
Moreover, water temperatures in the Lakes will likely become warmer, making the ecosystem unsuitable for cold-water fish species and changing the ecology of the region (Motsch, 2002). Reduction in surface ice on a lake can increase shore erosion and disrupt breeding patterns of fish species. The decreased ice cover can impact lake levels and have an adverse effect on water aquifers. Making Grand Traverse Bay is threatened area at least Lower water level along Grand Traverse Bay. The Great Lakes are integral to the tourism and fishing industries and are a source of water for many municipalities along their shores and industrial operations (Motsch, 2002). More frequent rainfall events are...