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Great Britain Essay

2000 words - 8 pages

Great Britain is made up of three countries, England, Scotland and Wales. It is an island off the coast of north­west of Europe. Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital is London.
Relief
There are many different landscapes in Britain, from high mountains to rolling hill sand valleys. Places like Wales, the Lake District and northwest Scotland have high mountains and steep slopes made out of solid rocks.

This landscape was made millions of years ago during the ice ages, when moving glaciers of ice made deep valleys, steep mountain slopes and long lakes. The southern and eastern parts of Britain are made up of smaller rocks that have weathered ...view middle of the document...

Wales
Wales has an irregular coastline and many bays; the biggest is Cardigan Bay. Except for narrow and low coastal areas, mainly in the south and west, Wales is mostly mountainous.
Area
England ­ 130,439km2
Scotland ­ 78,772km2
Wales ­ 20,768km2
Total ­ 229,979km2

Climate
Great Britain has quite cool summers and mild winters. The weather changes from day to day. The climate is temperate ­ the country does not have long periods when it is hot or cold.
Western parts of Britain receive more rain and snow during the year than south and east. This is because southwesterly winds bring water from the Atlantic Ocean to the west, which falls as rain where it meets the mountains on land. There are large amounts of water in this area and a shortage in the south and the east.

Britain’s climate is getting warmer. Average temperatures have risen 0.5°c since 1850. This is enough to start the polar ice caps melting. If the ice caps continue to melt, large areas of southern and eastern England will be permanently flooded.
The mean annual temperature ranges between 11.1°c in the south and 8.9°c in the northeast.
Fogs, mists, and overcast skies are frequent, particularly in the inland regions.
Average Temperature
London January ­ 4.5°c
July ­ 18°c
Edinburgh January - 5°c
July ­ 14.5°c
Scotland
Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain, Scotland is influenced by the surrounding seas. As a result, extreme changes are rare and temperate winters and cool summers are the major climate features. Low temperatures are common in the winter season. Precipitation ranges from about 3810mm annually in the western Highlands to about 635mm annually in eastern areas.
Wales
The climate of Wales, is a lot like England’s, it is mild and moist. Annual rainfall changes with elevation, ranging from about 762 mm in coastal regions to more than 2540 mm in the Snowdon massif.
England
As a result of the relative warmth of the nearby seas, England has a moderate climate. Precipitation is heaviest during October, it averages about 760 mm annually in most of England.

Soil
England
England has some agricultural and mineral resources but must rely on imports of both. Approximately two-fifths of the land area is arable, and the richest soils are found in the east.
Scotland
The soil is generally rocky and infertile, except for that of the Central Lowlands.
Wales
Much of the soil of Wales is of infertile rocky or leached types. The most fertile soils are in the southeast and in a few coastal areas.

Vegetation
Only about 8.5% of Britain land is forested, and half of this was planted forty years ago. Britain’s natural forest cover has been cut down over hundreds of years, especially in the 18th and 19th century.
Scotland
The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and conifers mainly fir, pine, and larch. Large forested areas are rare, and woodlands are in the...

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