Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is characterized by a low fallowratio and generally the high use of inputs such as capital, labour, or heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers relative to land area.
This is in contrast to many sorts of traditional agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower. With intensification, energy use typically goes up, either provided by humans, or supplemented with animals, or replaced with machines.
Intensive animal husbandry involves either large numbers of animals raised on limited land, usually confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) often referred to as factory ...view middle of the document...
Most smaller modern intensive farms include higher inputs of labor and use sustainable intensive methods. They also generally lack the economies of scale found in the larger farms. The type of innovations commonly found on these farms is referred to as appropriate technology. These farms are less widespread in both developed countries and worldwide, but are growing at a faster rate. Most the meat, dairy, eggs, fruits, and vegetables available in localfarmers markets and CSAs are produced by these smallholder farms.
Intensive livestock farming
In general Intensive production systems is to provide the modern production elements to get the higher production rates at the lowest possible cost and with the least possible effort.
Intensive livestock farming, also called "factory farming" is a term referring to the process of raising livestock in confinement at high stocking density, where a farm operates as a factory — a practice typical in industrial farming byagribusinesses. "Concentrated animal feeding operations" or "intensive livestock operations", can hold large numbers (some up to hundreds of thousands) of animals, often indoors. These animals are typically cows, hogs, turkeys, or chickens. The distinctive characteristics of such farms is the concentration of livestock in a given space. The aim of the operation is to produce as much meat, eggs, or milk at the lowest possible cost and with the greatest level of food safety. The term is often used in a pejorative sense, criticising large scale farming processes which confine animals. However, CAFOs have dramatically increased the production of food from animal husbandry worldwide, both in terms of total food produced and efficiency.
Food and water is supplied in place, and artificial methods are often employed to maintain animal health and improve production, such as therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents, vitamin supplements and growth hormones. Growth hormones are not used in chicken meat production nor are they used in the European Union for any animal. In meat production, methods are also sometimes employed to control undesirable behaviours often related to stresses of being confined in restricted areas with other animals. More docile breeds are sought (with natural dominant behaviours bred out for example), physical restraints to stop interaction, such as individual cages for chickens, or animals physically modified, such as the de-beaking of chickens to reduce the harm of fighting. Weight gain is encouraged by the provision of plentiful supplies of food to animals breed for weight gain.
The designation "confined animal feeding operation" in the U.S. resulted from that country's 1972 Federal Clean Water Act, which was enacted to protect and restore lakes and rivers to a "fishable, swimmable" quality. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified certain animal feeding operations, along with many other types of industry, as point source...