Topic: Greeting in English and Vietnamese
As we all know, differences in culture are one of the main problems leading to a failure of communication. Thus, if language learners want to develop their communicative competence in the target language, besides listening and speaking, they should improve a wide knowledge about sociolinguistics. Usually in daily life, people tend to use the illocutionary act rather than the locutionary act. Therefore, learners have difficulties in using the target language appropriately in different contexts. A greeting is not an exception. It is considered as the important aspect in cultural life of each nation. However, there are many ...view middle of the document...
In addition, people tend to greet each other according to the time of a day in formal coversations. This is the most common ways. According to time, there are some samples of greeting :
* From midnight to midday
- Morning Good Morning + (title/ first name)
- Good morning, Mr Tom
* After midday until 5p.m
- Afternoon Good afternoon + (title/ first name)
- Good afternoon, professor Mike
* After 5p.m until people have gone to sleep
-Evening or Good Evening + (title/ first name)
- Good evening, Ms Catherine
Besides, greeting in English also need to base on concrete contexts such as :
- Greeting between friends (very close friends) it's uncommon to use names in a casual greeting. Sometimes nicknames or short forms are used
Ex: A: Hi Corey.
B: Hey, Jennifer. Good to see you. (hug)
- At work, one person may have higher status – your boss, or a client, for example. It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal.
In English, the body languague is rather popular in greeting with hugs, kisses, shakinghands…
II. Greeting in Vietnamese
Greetings are part and parcel of everyday life. Vietnamese ancestors said: “Lời chào cao hơn mâm cỗ”. The statement reveals that greetings played an important role in the old days of our country.
In Vietnamese, greetings are diversified due to participants, age and social hierarchy. Especially, Vietnamese people attach great important to social positions. There are some relationships constituting the warp and woof of social life which are those between parent and child, husband and wife, senior and junior etc. These relationships are asymmetrical, or what is called the hierarchical order. This is the reason why different people have different ways to greet. Syntactic patterns and lexical distribution are used for emphasis on this feature.
* Greetings to senior addressee
- In the asymmetric communication between seniors and juniors, people in lower social positions have to greet first in order to show their respect for those in higher positions.
Formulas: (Dạ) “yes” + (First person) + chào “hello” + title/kinship term + polite particle “ạ”
(Dạ) (em) chào thầy ạ.
Chào “hello” + title. Chào bác
Title/ kinship term + ạ. Ông ạ!
The unique feature in Vietnamese greetings is that a speaker can express his or her emotion toward an addressee through a politeness intensifier “ạ”.
- In addition, the phrases such as “xin kính chào”, “kính chào”, “chào mừng”, “nhiệt liệt chào mừng” … are commonly used in a ceremony or a meeting.
*Greetings to junior addressee
- As mentioned above, hierarchy in Vietnamese society is extremely respected. Usually, a junior greets first and then a senior responds by re-greeting or nodding. This kind of greeting omits a first person and a polite particle “ạ”. Chào + kinship term . Chào cháu, Chào em…
Greetings to an equal addressee
- A greeting is simpler than...