Define growth and development.2. Discuss principles of growth anddevelopment.3. Describe need for monitoring growthand development.4. Discuss pattern of normal growth anddevelopment.5. Provide tips of promoting growth anddevelopment.
The most dramatic events in growth and developmentoccur before birth.
Increase in physical size andweight of the body (Height and Weight)
Increase in Mental, Physical,Social and Emotional abilitiesof the child. It meansfunctional and physiologicalmaturation.
Average level of development of a child which is decidedthrough the scientific study of physical, mental andnervous system of children.
Prenatal:Conception to the Birth•Infancy:Birth to 12 ...view middle of the document...
, Ht., Hc., Cc.)•Assessment of Tissue growth (Muscle mass, Skin foldthickness)•Bone age (Radiological assessment of epiphysis)•Dental age•Biochemical and histological means
Dimention of development
Fine Motor (Adaptive)
Communication and Language
Phallic Stage ( Preschool 4 to 7 years):
In this stage, the child's erogenouszone is the genital region. As the child becomes more interested in hisgenitals, and in the genitals of others, conflict arises. The conflict, labeledthe
in women), involves thechild's unconscious desire to possess the opposite-sexed parent and toeliminate the same-sexed
Latency Period ( School age 6-12 years):
The period in which the sexual drivelies dormant. Freud saw latency as a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. During the latency period,children pour this repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such asschool, athletics, and same-sex friendships. Freud implies that girlalways remains slightly fixated at the phallic stage.
Psychosocial Development (Erickson)
Genital Stage ( Adolescence 12 to 18 or 20):
But soon puberty strikes, and thegenitals once again become a central focus of libidal energy, interestturns to heterosexual relationships. The less energy the child has leftinvested in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater hiscapacity will be to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex.
Autonomy vs. sense of Shame & doubt
Toddler (12 to 36 months)
Newfound sense of independence as a result of having learned some basic self-care skills—walking, feeding, and toileting.
Initiative vs. Guilt:
Preschool (4 to 7 years)
Child develops the ability to initiate and direct own activities.Because they are developing a super ego (conscience),conflicts arise from their desire to explore and the limits placed upon them by caregivers—leads to feeling of frustration and guilt
Psychosocial Development Cont….
Industry vs. Inferiority:
School age (6-12 years)
Learning to achieve, compete, perform and developing a sense of self confidence because of successes. Thrive on accomplishments and praise. May develop a sense of inferiority when tasks are too difficult,thus producing failure—need support.
Identity vs. Role confusion:
Adolescence (12 to...