We are asked to understand the causes and implications of the first Gulf War but first we must understand what led up to the war. The war called the Persian Gulf War went from August 2, 1990 until February 28, 1991.
The events that led to the Persian Gulf War and you could say the rise of Saddam Hussein actually began way back in 1958. There was a military coup that overthrew the current monarch and that is how the Republic of Iraq was started and was supported by the communist. In 1959 Iraq then decided to withdraw from the Baghdad Pact which was a Cold War treaty among 5 countries including Iran and the United States. The treaty was trying to be used to threaten more Soviet movement into ...view middle of the document...
Of course there were objections but the Ba’ath Party was not strong enough to retaliate. Iran was trying to keep control of the gulf and knew it was one of Iraq’s busiest shipping accesses to Persian Gulf. This is where you could say was another major factor in the Persian Gulf War because both wanted control for access to the Gulf.
In 1972, not only did President Nixon tell Iran that it would help Iran and let them purchase American weapon system but he required that as long as they were they had to be non-nuclear. Plus Iraq and Soviet Union s Ba’ath Party signed a 15 year treaty of cooperation and friendship. Iraq also nationalizes its oil industry.
Then in 1973 Iraq troops crossed into Kuwait and wanted to take control of two border posts but were unable to, due to international condemnation. About 8 months later Syria and Egypt create an attack against Israel and even though Iraq didn’t border Israel it sent troops to fight Israel.
After this war Egypt and the United States get back to have diplomatic relations. They had not had relations since 1967. Egypt moved toward the pro Israel United States and away from the Anti Israel Soviet Union which subsequently impacted the politics in the Middle East. This is also a time when OPEC quadrupled the price of oil and temporarily stopped shipping to the United States which was a way of them trying to punish us for supporting Israel. An oil embargo against the United States from Libya, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Dubai started and then Iraq nationalized the holdings of the United Stated-owned Corporation Exxon and Mobil. We have an energy crisis and this is the time when Americans finally realize how important oil is to us. With prices going so high this is when the other countries started purchasing advanced weapon systems and Iraq was able to help Hussein’s ruling of the Ba’ath Party.
In 1974 the PLO was officially the representative of the Palestinian. They get observer status in the United Nations. Then in 1975 Iran and Iraq finally get the Algiers Accord and this gives control to Iran for the eastern half of Shatt al-‘Arab and for this agreement they are to end support Ba’ath Party of Kurdish rebels inside Iraq. Later the waterway becomes an issue in the war.
In 1978 President Carter had the retreat at Camp David where Sadat the Premier of Egypt and Begin Prime Minister of Israel agreed to peace negotiations and in 1979 they finally signed it. Months later in 1978 Iraq kicked Khomeini out of the country and he became the ruler of Iran in 1979.
In 1979 we had many things that happened. After the peace treaty had been signed between Egypt and Israel the Arab League censures Egypt and breaks ties and imposes an economic boycott. Hussein becomes President of Iran and at the same time becomes Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council. He then tries to get rid of most of the old regime to the Ba’ath Party because they tried to oust him. We then had the Iranian students who...