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Haemodialysis And The Dental Units Of Acanthamoeba Species In Alexandria, Egypt

1062 words - 5 pages

Acanthamoeba belongs to a group of free-living, opportunistic amoebae that can be isolated from different environmental sources including water, air and soil. They can be pathogenic or serve as carriers of other pathogenic organisms. The aim of the present study is to evaluate haemodialysis and dental units in Alexandria for the possible contamination of their hydraulic systems with Acanthamoeba species. The lack of previous studies in this respect derived us to conduct this preliminary study. Seventy samples were collected aseptically and then cultivated on non-nutrient agars at room temperature followed by morphological confirmation of Acanthamoeba on trichrome-stained smears. This study ...view middle of the document...

6 They have been isolated from fresh, brackish, and salt waters, soil samples ranging from the Antarctic to arid desert-like areas, sewage dump sites, and from the home environment in garden and flowerpot soils, water taps, humidifiers, home aquaria, etc.7 Acanthamoebae have also been recovered from the hospital environment in shower heads, ventilators, hydrotherapy baths and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning units as well as from dental irrigation systems.7 Dendana et al.8 reported that water at the entrance of a haemodialysis apparatus contained FLA, particularly of the genus Acanthamoeba. They attributed that to the long stagnation of water that could cause a development of biofilms providing a favorable condition for growth and proliferation of all microbial germs and FLA.8 In addition, these amoebae have been documented in dental waterlines.8,10
Pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba was first reported in experimental animals in the late 1950s .11 Since then, many clinical studies have been carried out on its pathologic outcomes in humans. The first human infection by Acanthamoeba, previously reported as Hartmannella, was described after the discovery of the amoebae and cysts in brain sections from a patient with brain abscesses in the early 1970s.12 The establishment of both clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. can be achieved via in vitro cultivation of samples on a non-nutrient agar (NNA) with a suitable bacterial food source such as living or heat-killed Escherichia coli.13 All environmental and clinical isolates grow well at room temperature (~25 oC); clinical isolates can also grow at ~37 oC while some clinical isolates, particularly those from corneal scrapings, grow optimally at a lower (~30 oC) temperature.13
In Egypt, only a few studies on Acanthamoeba have been published in the main databases. The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in freshwater sources associated with human activities in the Nile Delta region were studied using morphologic and molecular parameters.14 The study revealed that the isolates belong to T1, T2, T3, T4 and T7 genotypes with T4 isolates exhibited the most pathogenic traits.14 No previously published appraisal of the hydraulic systems of haemodialysis and dental units for Acanthamoeba spp. has been encountered online on main databases. Therefore, we carried out this preliminary appraisal for the above-mentioned units in Alexandria, Egypt.

2. Materials and methods
The present study is a...

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