UCL-CLIE Pre-sessional courses 2013
UCL Pre-sessionals - Harvard Referencing System 2013
This document explains how you can reference your work according to the Harvard Referencing System (henceforth simply referred to as Harvard). While there are a number of different referencing systems used in academia worldwide, Harvard is the most common and, consequently, is the one most likely to be useful to you in your future academic studies. This is why we expect you to use Harvard for referencing on the Pre-sessional. Once you have been admitted to the university department where you will be studying for your degree, you should, however, check which system your department favours and adapt ...view middle of the document...
This is because a reference can help demonstrate that you have not simply fabricated or invented the evidence you use when presenting your arguments.
How to keep records for referencing
1. Record all bibliographical details of the origin of your information, including page numbers for paginated material and section and paragraph numbers for non-paginated material. For a book these may include: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher (these details can usually be found on the front few pages of the book, just prior to the list of contents). It should be noted that precisely which of these details will be needed may vary slightly. More specific information is incorporated into the examples on subsequent pages of this document. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken.
UCL-CLIE Pre-sessional courses 2013
For a journal article the details required are likely to include: author, year of publication, title of article and title of journal, volume and issue number of journal and the page numbers from the first page of the article to the last page of the article. For electronic information, in addition to all of the above, you should include the date when you accessed the information and the name of the database of the web address (URL) from which the information has been accessed. 2. You should insert the required information in the text at the point where you use it (for a full range of examples, see the taxonomy of in-text references below) 3. You need to provide a reference list at the end of the text listing all sources in alphabetical order (for a full range of examples, see the taxonomy of end-or-text references below).
Reporting the ideas of others: quotations and paraphrases
Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where different authors have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation e.g. (Hamilton, C.L., 1994) or C.L. Hamilton (1994). If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon e.g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003). They should be presented alphabetically by author. When the same author has written two or more publications in the same year and you want to distinguish them from each other, the year of the one with the title alphabetically closest to “a” should be followed by an ‘a’, the one which has the second closest to “a” in alphabetical terms should be followed by a ‘b’, etc. For example, (Kroll, 1990a), Kroll, (1990b) and so on. In instances where two references by the same author/s are enclosed in the same brackets, they should be separated by a comma. For example, (Johns, 1988, p. 706, 1993, p. 167). When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given. For shorter...