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Health And Social Coursework Essay

3391 words - 14 pages

P1- Describe the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the following life stages.
INFANCY
Physical Development
When infant is 0-3 months he learns how to control his muscles and movements. Motor control develops from the head, moves down through the arms and the trunk and then to the legs and feet. At first, infant’s movements are reflexive in nature -- for example, he/she turns his head to the side when someone stroked his /her cheek. As motor development continued, he/she learns to interact with his environment. By one month, infant is able to turn his head from side to side when lying on the back or belly, and can move his/her hands and arms.
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Between 30 and 34 months, infant begins to walk up stairs alternating feet without a hand held or use of a railing. When infant turns 3 years old he will be well on his way to riding a tricycle.
Intellectual development
At first infants are egocentric. This means that they only see the world from their point of view. They cannot talk or understand language, so they make noises when someone speaks to them. At this stage of their life they only learn through sight, sound, taste, smell and touch. This is the reason why when infants are 6-12 month old they put everything in their mouth.
When infant is 6 months old and drops a toy out of his/her cot, they do not look for it, because they do not see it, therefore they do not know that it still exists. By about nine months infant learns that objects that he/she cannot see are still there and can be retrieved. At the time when infant is 9 months he/she practises making sounds, repeating syllables like ‘mum-mum’ and ‘dad-dad’. They begin to learn that the sounds carers make mean something and are able to understand a couple of words, like ‘no’ and ‘bye-bye’. When infants are 12 months they know their name and understand several words and simple commands with gestures, such as ‘give it to mummy’. At 15 months infants understand and obey simple commands for example ‘bring it here’. They can say a few words and understand many more. At the stage when infant is 18 months, he/she tries to join with nursery rhymes. Soon after this he could put a few words together to make simple sentences. When infants are two years old they are able to use 50 words and understand many more.
At two and a half years infant will be able to use 200 words and say few nursery rhymes. They will start to ask a lot more questions to learn about the world they are surrounded by. By the time infant turns three, he/she will learn a lot more words and will be able to carry on a simple conversations with adults. As they grow, talking and listening become more important way of learning for them. Learning to talk is an important intellectual development in infancy.
Emotional Development
At the stage when infant is a young baby he/she only has a little control over their body, therefore does not have a wide range of responses to emotions. As infants get older they develop a wider range of emotions. These are connected with other forms of development. For example;
Infant had to have a bond with somebody and experience attachment before he/she could feel jealous. To feel shy infant had to be able to tell the difference between strangers and people who he/she knows. At c six months old he began to be shy of strangers.
At the age of two infants experience a wider range of emotions. If a new baby was born it would be likely that infant would be showing how jealous he/she is of a new brother or sister. At this stage in his/her life infant cannot control how he/she responds to his emotions. Infants often have...

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