The digestive system’s function is to process food into energy and nutrients for the body. This consists of many stages such as ingestion, secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion.
The excretory system’s function is remove excess waste from the body such as water and salts. It is also eliminates urea (nitrogen-containing waste).
P3 – Outline the gross structure of all the main body systems.
Kidney – is located below the diaphragm in the back of the abdominal cavity. The kidneys are found one on each side of the body. The left kidney is slightly higher and larger than the right because of the liver. They are also bean shaped.
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The endocrine system is a collection of glands around the body. It consists of organs such as the pancreas, hypothalamus, parathyroid and pituitary glands. This body system is associated with homeostatic (regulation of internal environment) actions across the body such as controlling blood sugar levels.
Blood vessels – there are many types of blood vessels such as veins, arteries and capillaries. They vary in sizes but are tubular shaped structures that are located all over the body. They transport blood around the body.
Pituitary gland – is located in the forehead and has a pea sized structure. It is one of the most important glands of this system as it produces hormones to control many bodily functions.
Adrenal glands – are found above each of the kidneys and are small triangular/cap shaped glands.
Thyroid gland – can be found in the front of the neck and is wrapped around the trachea. Its shape resembles a butterfly because of the way it folds.
Heart – the heart is one of the most vital organs of the entire body. It is a muscular organ that is located in the chest between the lungs and protected by the ribcage. It is roughly the size of an average closed fist and its purpose is to pump blood around the body.
Pancreas – is located between the intestine and stomach, in the abdomen. Its characteristics are small and leaf shaped. The pancreas produces hormones to maintain glucose levels.
Testes – these are only located in males in the abdomen and are found on the external body. They have a spherical shape and are also part of the male’s reproductive system and store sperm.
Ovaries – can only be found in females and are located in the abdominal cavity in the pelvis region. They have an oval and egg-like shape and are part of the female’s reproductive system and produce and store egg cells.
The nervous system is complex system which responds to internal and external stimuli. It also can control and co-ordinate organs and produces reflex actions for protection.
The respiratory system consists of the lungs, trachea, nose and mouth. Its...