Article : Changing governance of the Indian Higher education sector in the Globalised economy
The present paper sets out in the wider context of globalization to examine how India have responded to the growing pressures of globalization for improving university performance in the global market place. In order to enhance the global competitiveness of their higher education systems, governments in india have started comprehensive reforms and adopted new governance measures to enhance their universities. Incorporation and corporatization have been identified as important strategies to restructure and re-engineer university governance around the world. Despite the popularity of management ...view middle of the document...
The objective was clear: to take the country into a market-friendly economy. Economic measures--like liberalising the trade and investment policy, deregulating the stringent legal framework, privatizing the weak state-owned enterprises--implemented over a number of years have made the country a global economy. A global economy brings changes in all the sections of economy, particularly in economic growth, inflow and outflow of trade and investment. The Indian economy experienced a leap in international trade proving the integration of the country's economy with those of the rest of the world. Globalisation offered new opportunities to the Indian businesses in terms of foreign investment and new technology. But at the same time, it also poses challenges to and imposes constraints on many systems. The new environment holds both threats and opportunities to higher education in the country.
Drastic Expansion in Number and its Impact on Quality
But institutions of higher education cannot be a hot-house of growth. They require not only substantial financial resources for infrastructure but also high quality teaching staff which is not readily available. If institutions are hurriedly set up, they will remain below the requisite standard. Already we are seeing this in India’s system of higher education. Quality is sacrificed at the altar of quantity. In a special report on India (The Economist, December 13-19 2008, “China and India—a tale of two vulnerable economies”) it is stated: “The quality of teaching in India’s 248 Universities and some 18,000 colleges is generally poor.
Privatization of Education
The newly emerging private sector in higher education cannot spearhead academic growth. Though several well-endowed and effectively managed private institutions maintain reasonably high standards, it is not clear whether such institutions will be able to sustain themselves in the long run; being mostly confined to narrow targeted goals. Further, most of the private institutions do not focus on advanced training in the sciences. Thus, the country needs to urgently gear its selected universities, for building a higher education system oriented towards achieving its goal of joining the developed world economies
World class universities require world class professors and students along with an appropriate culture to sustain and stimulate them. Like in the past, top institutions in India would require sustained funding from public sources. Academic salaries must be competitive enough to attract excellent scientists and scholars. Fellowships and grants should be available to bright students if an academic culture that is based on merit based norms and competition for advancement and research funds is to be maintained in such institutions. A necessary component is a judicious mix of autonomy for these institutions to do creative research and, the associated accountability to ensure productivity.
The academic standards of these private institutions...