This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

History Crusades Essay

2455 words - 10 pages

Essay Topic: The Crusades
Essay Question: What were the leading causes of the Crusades and what is their legacy on the world?

What were the leading causes of the Crusades and what is their legacy on the world?

From the moment the first crusade was called in 1095, the European continent; it’s beliefs, it’s people, and it’s way of life, would be changed forever, whilst those in the Middle East were not anywhere near as greatly affected by the fighting that spanned for centuries. The factors that led to such a monumental event grew over time and coupled with one another soon snowballed into what would become the calling of the First Crusade by Pope Urban II in 1095. Factors ...view middle of the document...

When Jerusalem was conquered in 638AD The Eastern Roman Empire lost control of Christianity’s most holy and sacred city to Muslim conquers. Nevertheless the new owners of this sacred land allowed both the Jews and Christians to continue using their places of worship, and for centuries people of all three faiths co-existed in the Holy Land relatively peacefully. 3 In fact it would be over four hundred years before Christians attempted to recapture Jerusalem, and only then when Constantinople and the Eastern Emperor were under direct threat from the Seljuk Turks. It was not until this threat was apparent that the Pope saw fit to reclaim the Holy Land. A reason for this is that with the Great Schism in 1054, whereby the church was divided into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox, the Vatican lost it’s influence in the East, and they saw this threat as a great opportunity to regain supremacy of the East. By aiding the East to fight off the infidels, the Vatican could at least gain moral supremacy that might ultimately lead to a repairing of the religious divide. Or if that was impossible then having the Eastern Empire indebted to the Catholic Church would be only slightly less advantageous.4 It was this Papal drive for power that contributed to the decision to retake the Holy land.
In the 11th Century the popes sought to increase their powers not just over the church but their secular powers too. Secular rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV challenged the power of the popes, this led to the Investiture Controversy when relations between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV diminished to the point where Gregory excommunicated the Emperor. Pope Gregory VII believed that if the papacy could persuade the nobility of Europe to wage war on behalf of the church, it might enable the pope to claim jurisdiction over warfare5 and this would be an “expression of [the pope’s] moral leadership of the western worlds”6. So in order to achieve this Gregory instigated controversial reforms of both spiritual and organisational nature. These Gregorian Reforms, as they came to be known, aimed to purify the church which was at risk of becoming lax and corrupt. He issued new standards on clerical behaviour, competence and education, whilst also reorganising the bureaucracy that was the church, strengthening the pope’s authority and making it more consistent and answerable to the Vatican. After making these reforms Pope Gregory in 1074 attempted to call for the nobility to take up crusade saying “A pagan race [has] overcome the Christians and with horrible cruelty had devastated everything almost to the walls of Constantinople […] if we love God and wish to be recognized as Christians, […] we should lay down our lives to liberate them.”7 However due to the negative reaction to his reforms and excommunication of the Holy Roman Emperor, the nobles of Europe ignored this call. Nevertheless it was these organisational changes that enabled Pope...

Other Essays Like History crusades

The First Crusade Essay

1567 words - 7 pages ??? I still see the Crusades today as a Changing point is World history. These people, although the were partially tricked, decided that it was time for something to change and they did it.. Even though it was about 800 years ago, it still sticks out as a turning point in history. I went into this paper with out a clue on what to do it on, how to do it, or even why I'm doing it. I've learned more about the Crusades and their importance though

The Change in the Power of Kings Throughout the Course of the Middle Ages

1220 words - 5 pages removed, meant death here and hereafter.”. This quote is from a text found online ( by Cox George W. (George William), called Epochs of History- The Crusades, showing that kings would be excommunicated very easily if they didn’t act the way the popes expected them to. The classic image of a medieval king that has such tremendous wealth and power comes from the period after the beginning of the Crusades

Reasons for the Outbreak of the First Crusade

1920 words - 8 pages developing the theory of plenary indulgence. Now there was a justification for Christians to crusade making it acceptable and giving them an end reward. The period in history prior to 1095 was an extremely religious time both in the Christian and Muslim worlds and some feel that this period was always leading up to the crusades. It is hard to understand why Christian men went on crusade when one of their founding beliefs in Christianity is “thou


1170 words - 5 pages their husbands were away on crusades. Most women did not know when their husbands would be coming back from these "holy" wars. These things mostly took place in manors, where a family lived in one village or town and made their living. Many men were called to help out in the crusades and many women were left behind. The women in Japan were hardly respected. They were viewed as human beings who would marry and bear children for their

Ancient Mid-East History

1441 words - 6 pages evil, had no place in gods world and in general, posed a threat to everything good into the minds of all Europe. After they must have surely realized their failure and wrongness in the aftermath of the Crusades, the church still would not let anyone publicly address that. This further emphasizes the idea that a true understanding of history, and an education in general, is key to the well being of any society; enabling the individual to choose right

The First Crusade

1273 words - 6 pages of history, are often known without being truly understood. In the modern era, the Crusades are seen almost as an afterthought, and used as a tool to rationalize and justify relativism in general. In fact, Islam had spread deep to the west, swallowing Spain and expanding into southern France. Much of Europe was in a state of subtle chaos. The Normans held the British Isles, and what we know as Germany today was in a constant state of

Some of the Main Socio Economic Events of Middle Ages

2421 words - 10 pages King Richard "the Lion-Hearted”, the history of the Crusades makes dismal reading. The first Crusade was proclaimed in 1095 by Pope Urban II.Other Crusades follow in 1191,1202,1217 and 1270.Each Crusade began in high hope, in a genuine desire to rescue Jerusalem from the Turks, but most ended squalidly in raiding looting, and a tangle of power politics.Still,in the end, Western Europe gained much from these expeditions to the Near East. Christian

Human Beings Are Inherent Evil

586 words - 3 pages Good and evil is one of the most prevalent controversies in human history. An individual human being faces this argument everywhere, not only in the Bible, stories, and newspapers, but even within himself. Nowadays, peoples all over the world are suffering much more threats from terrorism and war, evil seems to be back on the upswing. Although some people argue that human beings are good, the causes why human beings are inherent evil may be

To What Extent Can We Attribute Responsibility for Instances of Persecution in History to the Influence of Powerful Individuals?

3200 words - 13 pages sector and also he did not want his country de-stabilised just prior to his departure for the Holy Lands. Even the Writ that was produced was not wholly convincing, given what is known about the ruthless way he condemned prisoners to death and quashed the nobility in his earlier life, the Writ was a piece of weak legislation that did not count for much because as soon as Richard had left for the Crusades in 1190, the people of York turned on their

Jesus Christ Being the Central Figure of Christianity

669 words - 3 pages Apologetics · Baptism · Christology · Father · Son · Holy Spirit · History of theology · Salvation · Trinity History and traditions Timeline · Mary · Peter · Paul · Fathers · Early · Constantine the Great · Ecumenical councils · Missions · East–West Schism · Crusades · Protestant Reformation Denominations and movements [show]Western Adventist · Anabaptist · Anglican · Baptist · Calvinism · Evangelical · Holiness · Independent Catholic

Humanities: Middle Ages

2439 words - 10 pages like banks also began to sprout. And as expected in the social network created by economics, burgeoning wealth and the exchange of ideas produced new ways of thinking that presented itself in philosophies, humanities & the arts (music, paintings, literature, architecture, etc.). Also, it is during this period that a series of invasion and attempts to retake the Holy Land happened. This period in History is known as 'The Crusades' and a key source

Related Papers

History A2 Crusades Economic Factors

660 words - 3 pages . Nevertheless, the methods the historian uses is non-judgmental and as Madden argues, “they were medieval, not modern people,” it is significant not to judge, based on modern day perception. The historian uses a top down approach, whilst focusing on the elite. Historian Bryd states the individuals choice played little role in the pragmatic success of the crusades. “A military expedition was essential…” they were driving the crusades and paid

The Crusades Essay

1962 words - 8 pages . Boston: Houghton Miffilin Publishing. 1997 Lamb, Harold. The Crusades: The Flame of Islam. New York: Garden City Publishing. 1931 Phillips, Jonathan. First Crusades: Origins and Impacts. Washington: Viking Penguin Inc. 1997 Sellman, R.R. The Crusades. New York: Roy Publishers. 1955 Treece, Henry. The Crusades. New York: Random House. 1962 crusades.html

The Crusades Essay

1573 words - 7 pages The Crusades of the middle ages were an extremely important part of history, although it was very gruesome and unnecessary at the same time, an oxymoron. I say it was important only because it had an impact on the world we live in today. It could be a very different world if the crusades would have never occurred and I believe traditional Roman Catholicism would be much more popular nowadays. The concept of the crusades seems wrong in the modern

The Crusades: A Successful Failure Essay

1528 words - 7 pages . Works Cited Bokenkotter, Thomas. A concise history of the Catholic Church. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977. Print. Eberhard, Hans. The Crusades. 2nd. Oxford University Press, USA, 1988. Print. Coffin, Judith, and Robert Stacey. Western Civilizations: From Prehistory to the Present. 2nd. New York, NY: W W Norton & Co Inc, 2008. Print.