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History Of Computers Essay

895 words - 4 pages

Military Computers

T
he present generation of specialists on information technologies knows almost nothing about the history of development and use of computers in domestic weapon systems and assets. Meanwhile computers and sets of software for military equipment created in the period from the 1950s to the 1980s boasted a plethora of original solutions and ensured parity with the West in this area of information processing and control of complex systems. In the 1950s, the initial stage in the development of domestic computer technology, the developers focused on creating computers designed to solve difficult mathematical problems. These were bulky machines geared to solve problems ...view middle of the document...

This type of isolated computer development effort was a very costly proposition, which undoubtedly can be listed among its disadvantages. But it had its advantages as well, resulting as it did in a plethora of original and highly effective solutions that helped preserve parity with the West in various areas of military equipment.
The lack, in the 1950s-1970s period of an advanced, centralized electronic components industry often led to their development by the same enterprises as created computer architecture and command and control systems as a whole. As a result, integrated circuits were often rather primitive, of different types, hardly of high quality or technological level. Many defense industry enterprises pursued full development cycle from integrated circuits to software, this resulting in numerous parallel, non-standardized R & D projects and increasing considerably development periods and project costs. Later this complicated the production of numerous different-type computers and led to difficulties with support and modernization of military command and control systems as a whole.
Traditionally, heads of military projects paid most attention to developing hardware, which was true of computer projects as well. For this reason, many of them tended to underestimate the importance of a fundamentally new type of products, software, which appeared in the late 1950s and encapsulated the intellectual core of control-related methods and processes, as well as a considerable portion of factors determining the quality and efficiency of military systems. Neither the needed number of specialists was assigned nor were the needed allocations and resources duly estimated to be put into software development. Programmers' work was regarded as simple and did not require specialized technological equipment.
In no way did the customers and...

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