BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION (B.ED GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING)
COURSE CODE: EGC 101
COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
TRACE THE HISTORY OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING TO NIGERIA
SUNDAY ENE MARTHA
REG. NO: 45905550HA
Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and one of the most largest in the world. She has always been in the forefront of issues relating to politics, economy, peace and conflict resolutions in Africa, hence, the name “Giant of Africa”. In fact Nigeria has it all – an overwhelming blend of religion, ethnicity, people, values, culture, natural and human ...view middle of the document...
The term guidance refers to a more directive or prescriptive form of assistance. It is a broad term used to cover a number of specialist services available in schools. Such services include the information service, testing service, placement service, follow-up service and counseling service. But looking at the modern day global world, the provision of specialist services are no more limited to the school, it now includes the community in general. From the above, guidance can be summarily defined as a cognitive educational services (within or outside the school system) that help people understand themselves, provided the client reveals accurate, reliable and valid information about himself and his environment (Olugbenga, 2006).
Counselling on the other hand refers to a process of helping individuals or group of people to gain self-understanding in order to be themselves. Burker and Steffler (1979), in Olugbenga (2006), see counseling as a professional relationship between a trained Counselor and a client. Olayinka (1972) also defined it to be a process whereby a person is helped in a face-to-face relationship. It can be understood as an enlightened process whereby people help others by encouraging their growth and decision-making. In other words, counselling is a process designed to help clients understand and clarify personal views of their life space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful and well-informed choices. There are two major types of Counselling, namely: individual counselling and group counselling.
History of Guidance and Counseling
According to Gabriel Akume et’al, the history of Guidance and Counseling can be traced back to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teaching of Plato and Aristotle. Now as far back as the sixteenth century, Guidance and Counseling has existed in those places where there are Rev. Fathers (Catholic Priests), who have the skills and techniques pertaining the principles of confidentiality and confession. From here Guidance and Counseling grew in importance and found its way into mainstream American society as early as the 1900s when the Americans were experiencing stress arising from social consciousness which emanated from parent against social injustices and economic meltdown. As an organized academic discipline, there are cogent evidences attesting to the fact that Guidance and Counselling originated from America at the beginning of the 20th Century because of the society’s emphasis on individual development. This could be seen from several historical events that took place in the United States. The idea of guiding people became widely accepted in America following events such as the vocational guidance movement, Standardized Testing Movement, Mental Health Movement, and the Pro-counselling Legislative Acts. With this, most cities like Detroit, New York, Boston, etc were convinced of its importance, hence they accepted it and it grew rapidly.