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MATHEMATICS IN INDIA

The history of maths in india is very great & eventful.Indians gave the system of numerals, zero, geometry & equations to the world.

The great Indian mathematician Aryabhata (476-529) wrote the Aryabhatiya ─ a volume of 121 verses. Apart from discussing astronomy, he laid down procedures of arithmetic, geometry, algebra and trigonometry. He calculated the value of Pi at 3.1416 and covered subjects like numerical squares and cube roots. Aryabhata is credited with the emergence of trigonometry through sine functions.

Around the beginning of the fifteenth century Madhava (1350-1425) developed his own system of calculus based on his knowledge of trigonometry. He was an ...view middle of the document...

The symbols for nine numerals and a symbol for zero were well-established by the fifth century AD.

The decimal system is believed to have originated in India. Arab Mathematicians – Al Khawarizmi and Al-Nasavi in 825 AD and 1025 AD respectively – refer to it as ta-rikh ai Hindi and al-amal al-Hindi.

The Three Pramanas

The acquisition of mathematical knowledge and competence covers three aspects that are in fact the mainstay for mastering any discipline:

a) Pratyaksha i.e. perception

b) Anumana i.e. inference

c) Agama or Sabda i.e. traditional or textual knowledge.

These three together are known as pramanas.

History of Geometry

The science of geometry originated in India in connection with the construction of the altars meant for Vedic sacrifices. Sulbas are studies in early Hindu geometry.

The Sulbas or the Sulba Sutras are the manuals for the construction of the altars for worship.Dr Bibhutibhushan Datta, author of History of Hindu Mathematics, in his The Science of the Sulba has described a number of postulates, which must have been tacitly assumed by the geometers of the Sulba for the geometric operations. The postulates of the Sulba are connected with the division of figures such as straight lines, rectangles, circles and triangles.

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The postulates

1. A given finite straight line can be divided into any number of equal parts.

2. A circle can be divided into any number of equal parts by drawing diameters

3. Each diagonal of a rectangle bisects it.

4. The diagonals of a rectangle bisect one another.

5. The diagonals of a rhombus bisect one another at right angles

A triangle can be divided into a number of equal and similar parts by dividing the sides into an equal number of parts and then joining the points of division two and two.

6. An isosceles triangle is divided into two equal parts by the line joining the vertex with the middle point of the base.

7. A triangle formed by joining the extremities of a square to the middle point of the opposite side is equal to half the square.

8. A quadrilateral formed by the lines...

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