History Of Management Essay

980 words - 4 pages

History of management
Theory of scientific management
Scientific management was proposed by Frederick Taylor. He said that “Modern management is the collaboration of people and machines to create value.” In the early days of industrialization the innovators of machines and the innovators of organization and management were engineers. Engineers, after all, were the ones closest to the machines, and this fact placed them at the interaction of workers and machines. He was an engineer at Midvale Steel Company. His direct observations of men at work led him to develop what we would call "motivation" theory.  He saw human labor very much analogous to machine work--- something to be "engineered" ...view middle of the document...

A day-rate or hourly-rate was a common practice at the turn of the century. Taylor viewed these wage practices as rewarding for attendance, not performance. While another common practice was the "piece-rate" system that paid workers on the basis of output, this generally failed because standards were poorly set, employers cut rates when workers earned "too much", and workers would conceal their real capacity for production to keep standards low.

The solution, according to Taylor, was that Management should establish specific work targets, pay workers for the tasks and goals met, and provide regular feedback. The main elements of his theory were:
1. Management is a true science. The solution to the problem of determining fair work standards and practices could be discovered by experimentation and observation. From this, it follows, that there is "one right way" for work to be performed.
2. The selection of workers is a science. Taylor's "first class worker" was someone suitable for the job. It was management's role to determine the kind of work for which an employee was most suited, and to hire and assign workers accordingly.
3. Workers are to be developed and trained. It is management's task to not only engineer a job that can be performed efficiently, but management is responsible for training the worker as to how the work is to be performed and for updating practices as better ones are developed. This standardizes how the work is performed in the best way.
4. Scientific management is a collaboration of workers and managers. Managers are not responsible for execution of work, but they are responsible for how the work is done. Planning, scheduling, methods, and training are functions of the manager.

Basically what he proposed was
1. Analyzing a certain job through various experiments,
2. Breaking a job into elements and finding the most efficient way to do each part, and then integrate them to get the “one right way”
3. Replace this modern scientific ways with the old rule-of-thumbs
4. Scientific Management was one of the 1st...

Other Essays Like History Of Management

operations management Essay

396 words - 2 pages or further economic interestsplan of attackthe complexity of worker/manager relationsevolution of hrmhard and soft models of hrmwww.cipd.co.uka potted history of work related ideas and eventsstages in evolution of pm and hrmwelfare personnelpersonnel admpm (dvplg pahase) 1940-50spm mature phasehrm (phase1 1980s)hrm (phase 2 - 1990s)pm was a often a matter of collecting together such odd jobs from management as they are prepared to give upCrichton

Bba Hons 4 Yare Program Essay

788 words - 4 pages /International Business Management Environment Science/Management History Development of Islamic Business Institutions Money and Banking Sub Total 24 Undergraduate Specialization 1. Specialization-I 2. Specialization –II 3. Specialization –III 4. Specialization –IV Sub Total Project / One Additional Course 12 3 Total Credits 135 Approved Scheme of Study BBA (Hons) 4 Year Program Undergraduate Specialization Courses of Marketing

History of Project Managment

622 words - 3 pages HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGMENT 01-Jun-13 UMMARA MUSHTAQ 2123224 HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. Starting in the early 1960s, businesses and other organizations began to see the benefit of organizing work around projects. This project-centric view of the organization evolved

Change Management

1303 words - 6 pages Change management - the systems and tools for managing change Scope of change management This tutorial provides a summary of each of the main areas for change management based on Prosci's research with more than 900 organizations in the last 7 years. The purpose of defining these change management areas is to ensure that there is a common understanding among readers. Tools or components of change management include: Change management

“(We Can) Conceive of Twentieth-Century Management Theory as Being Involved in a Double Movement of Constructing Organizational Reality and Rationality While Effacing the Process of Construction...

2110 words - 9 pages Management History. 16 (3), 346-366 Keleman, M. Rumens, N. (2008) An Introduction to Critical Management Research. Sage Publications Ltd. London. Ogbor, J. (2001) “Critical theory and the hegemony of corporate culture”. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 14 (6), 590-608. Peucelle, J. L. (2000) “From Taylorism to Post Taylorism: Simultaneously pursuing several management objectives”. Journal of Organizational Change Management

Project Management

2260 words - 10 pages software systems, viewed 3 April 2011, <http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/spring2003/cmsc838p/Process/waterfall.pdf> Santayana, G 2008, Trends in modern project managemen, viewed 24 March 2011, <http://www. mosaicprojects.com.au/Resources_Papers_061.html> Stretton, A 2007, A short history of modern project management, viewed 1 April 2011, <http:// www.pmworldtoday.net/> Ullman, D & Levine, H 2009, Five key decisions for

Self-Management in Chronic Illnesses: a Concept Analysis

2641 words - 11 pages . This model case exemplifies the improved outcomes with self-management with additional benefits from HET as espoused by Knight and Shea (2011). Alternative cases A contrary case would be Mrs. S who is a 53 year old female with a history of cardiomyopathy and hypotension. Mrs. S was diagnosed when a familial history of cardiomyopathy became evident and she brought it to her physician’s attention. Mrs. S was advised to monitor her blood

Environmetal Studies

534 words - 3 pages Origins of EMS • Environmental management system in industry have their origins in voluntary codes of environmental conduct adopted by a number of industries in response to the increasing regulatory pressures that started in the 1970s. There were also a lot of negative publicity originating from the industrial accidents and exclusive legal cases and increasing public worries regarding environmental impacts of industrial processes. The history

Organizational Behavior

992 words - 4 pages . HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The history of organizational behavior is rooted in the behavioral approach to management, or the belief that specific attention to workers’ needs creates greater satisfaction and productivity. In contrast to the largely technical emphasis of scientific management, a common theme of the behavioral approach is the need to focus on people. Scientific management did not ignore people altogether, and in some ways it

Management Pattern of Telicommunication

1129 words - 5 pages understandablemanner will be to present management history and theory with an emphasis on the future. Most students will be applying the concepts learned here over a period of next many years. Another objective shall be toidentify several areas where management concepts are applicable to the personal and professional goal-setting and also to apply the management skills to the challenge of managing the most difficult peer orsubordinate – the one

What Is A Project

1127 words - 5 pages activity is to use an online job search tool, such as www.monster.com, to search for project manager job openings in your area. See how many jobs are found and then review some of the job titles, companies, and job descriptions that are provided. History of Project Management Briefly summarize the history of project management and emphasize that many organizations and industries are still struggling to understand and apply good project management

Related Papers

The History Of Operations Management Essay

4735 words - 19 pages The field of Operations emerged in the 1800’s but with each decade has grown and developed into the technologically advanced field it is today, committed to producing innovative quality products and services. According to Heizer & Render (2008) Operations Management is “the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs.” This paper examines the evolution of Operations management and

The History Of Scientific Management Theories

1226 words - 5 pages In the history of management thinking, there are many ways to manage an organization, such as scientific management and administrative management. This essay will discuss the notion that scientific management was a ‘good’ idea in the history of management thinking, by looking at the historical backgrounds and political beliefs of economist, also how the develop management theory by conducting experiments, and how their theories made it into the

The History Of Human Resource Management

2015 words - 9 pages The history of human resource management started with providing welfare measures to apprentices of the putting-out system. The first personnel department came in the early 20th century. Human resource management has evolved through the ages and gained importance with each passing age. The Origins of Workforce Management The earliest forms of human resource management were the working arrangements struck between craftsmen and their apprentices

Global Radioactive Waste Management Market Research Report 2016

903 words - 4 pages geographical region and the emerging region has been presented in this report. Get Complete Report with TOC: http://www.gosreports.com/global-radioactive-waste-management-market-researchreport-2016/ The study on the Global Radioactive Waste Management Industry also features a history of the tactical mergers, acquisitions, collaborations, and partnerships activity in the market. Valuable recommendations by senior analysts about investing