History of management
Theory of scientific management
Scientific management was proposed by Frederick Taylor. He said that “Modern management is the collaboration of people and machines to create value.” In the early days of industrialization the innovators of machines and the innovators of organization and management were engineers. Engineers, after all, were the ones closest to the machines, and this fact placed them at the interaction of workers and machines. He was an engineer at Midvale Steel Company. His direct observations of men at work led him to develop what we would call "motivation" theory. He saw human labor very much analogous to machine work--- something to be "engineered" ...view middle of the document...
A day-rate or hourly-rate was a common practice at the turn of the century. Taylor viewed these wage practices as rewarding for attendance, not performance. While another common practice was the "piece-rate" system that paid workers on the basis of output, this generally failed because standards were poorly set, employers cut rates when workers earned "too much", and workers would conceal their real capacity for production to keep standards low.
The solution, according to Taylor, was that Management should establish specific work targets, pay workers for the tasks and goals met, and provide regular feedback. The main elements of his theory were:
1. Management is a true science. The solution to the problem of determining fair work standards and practices could be discovered by experimentation and observation. From this, it follows, that there is "one right way" for work to be performed.
2. The selection of workers is a science. Taylor's "first class worker" was someone suitable for the job. It was management's role to determine the kind of work for which an employee was most suited, and to hire and assign workers accordingly.
3. Workers are to be developed and trained. It is management's task to not only engineer a job that can be performed efficiently, but management is responsible for training the worker as to how the work is to be performed and for updating practices as better ones are developed. This standardizes how the work is performed in the best way.
4. Scientific management is a collaboration of workers and managers. Managers are not responsible for execution of work, but they are responsible for how the work is done. Planning, scheduling, methods, and training are functions of the manager.
Basically what he proposed was
1. Analyzing a certain job through various experiments,
2. Breaking a job into elements and finding the most efficient way to do each part, and then integrate them to get the “one right way”
3. Replace this modern scientific ways with the old rule-of-thumbs
4. Scientific Management was one of the 1st...