Table of contents
* PART 1: ACADEMIC ESSAY………….Pages 2 to 4
* PART 2:………………………………......Page 5
* INDIVIDUAL REFLECTION
* BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………Page 6
10th April 2012
Indigenous education in the pre-colonial era in South Africa
Education in the pre-colonial time which involved tradition, culture and wisdom, was passed down orally by means of poems, songs and chants from one generation to the next. These include the history of the previous generations, legendary events that took place and the vital skills needed to prosper in the ever changing environment. Ethics, religion, philosophy, ...view middle of the document...
Using proverbs was a method of transferring language to the younger members of that community.
Initiation as a ritual carries symbolic meaning that relates to the social structure and belief system of a particular cultural group (Booyse et al. 2011).This ritual was performed when a child enters adulthood and to teach the youth of the community essence of self. This may be explained by the rite of passage, which is divided into three sequenced categories. Firstly, Separation rites, which is the removal of individuals from society and abandoning their previous social status. Secondly, marginal rite is discovering a new social status in complete isolation without the influence of any external factors. Lastly, aggregation rite is the returning of an individual back to society with this new social status. Circumcision and hardships were experienced during isolation amongst boys and girls between the ages of ten and sixteen.
In the pre-colonial time social, economic and academic situations of the community was entrenched in the rock art. These paintings projected their communities and religious beliefs. The San thought they were close to the animal territory and reflected this relationship in their art. The material used to paint this rock art varied from, red oxides, carbon, and manganese dioxide to eland blood. This art was not only in the form of rock art, but also trance dances and other activities that took place.
Men and women, in communities, had roles that differed. The Khoi were interested in livestock, as it was seen as a measure of wealth. The men therefore protected the livestock from being taken or attacked. It was also their responsibility to make clay pots and poison arrows. Khoi women focused their responsibilities on housework and the running various household duties, which included skinning and handing out of the hunted meat as well as weeding and basket making. They also collected various plants for eating purposes. The elderly men in the community were responsible for teaching the adolescent boys how to hunt eland. Once this has been done they are considered adults.
Cultural beliefs and values in a community were portrayed through dance to express feelings and pass the various beliefs on to further generations. Important events such as marriages, funerals, etc. made use of music and dance. This music was seen in two...