INDO PAK RELATIONS ( PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES).
Two independent sovereign dominions were born on Aug 14-15 1947.The two dominions India and Pak were created by a law enacted by British Parliament to grant independence to the then British India and divide it.Pak was carved out of British INDIA because according to the muslim league, led by Jinnah India consisted of not one but two people, hindus and muslims. That is why it demanded Pak , a separate country for muslims INC did not belived in Jinaah’s “two nation theory” but several political develop in 1940s, the political competition btw the Congress and the League and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan and ...view middle of the document...
After the dissolution of the British Raj in 1947, two new sovereign nations were formed—the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to 12.5 million people, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million. India emerged as a secular nation with aHindu majority population and a large Muslim minority while Pakistan was established as an Islamic republic with an overwhelming Muslim majority population.There were also brief period when these relations cud be described as normal and cordial. Many efforts were made by both the countries to normalize these relations, but all have proved fruitless. Immediately after independence, the two countries have fought three major wars, one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir dispute is the main center-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). . And instead of bringing peace and prosperity to der vast majority of population both the states feel threatened and insecure by eachother.
The India-Pak rivalry remains one of the most enduring and unresolved conflict of our times. Despite occasional peace it shows no signs of a permanent settlement in the near future. Thus, the S.A conflict and regional security dynamics revolve basically around the rivalry and antagonism btw India and Pak.
The history of Indo-Pak relation is a story of two hostile neighours, having diffrnt religious ideologies, difrnt socio-eco bases and conflicting national interest. Its reality can be best descrbd as a dichotomous model, one whr the two countries are seen as locked in a zerosum conflict i.e. the gain for one is seen as the loss of the other.
Mutual distrust and antagonism marked the relations btw two countries since 1947 whn they achieved independence. The rivalry btw the two countries intensified when India began to assert its role as the hegemonic power in the region and also at the most of the time Pak’s F.P twrds India has been reactive. The India-Pak rivalry remains one of the most enduring and unresolved conflict of our times. Despite occasional peace it shows no signs of a permanent settlement in the near future. Thus, the S.A conflict and regional security dynamics revolve basically around the rivalry and antagonism btw India and Pak.
There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship—notably, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore summit. Since the early 1980s, relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict, the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989, Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998 and the 1999Kargil war. Certain confidence-building measures — such as the 2003 ceasefire agreement and the Delhi–Lahore Busservice — were successful in deescalating tensions....