The main idea of this report is to explain on the concepts of environmental management and how are these concepts to be considered and classified as eco-efficiency or eco-effectiveness to the environment. There are various types of concepts of environmental management in relating to the solution of environmental issues in business. One of these concepts will be further discussed in the entire essay is industrial ecology concept. Also, this report will outline the elements of this concept which will be classified into eco-efficiency or eco-effectiveness and their impacts to the environment. Industrial ecology concepts and its elements will be explaining in details with some ...view middle of the document...
Cradle-to-cradle products or design refer as sustainability model from the products that have been manufactured. (McClendon and Michelle 2005, 95)They used as natural processes to enrich the goal and bring advantages to the environment. Industrial ecology stated that we should not waste anything regarding to the nature.
Under eco-efficiency, it shows that the lesser the materials and energy and waste generated, the more efficient for the production of goods and services (Brueckner.2010, 31) Eco-efficiency minimizes the use of resources and energy by promoting the use of recyclable and durability products in order to achieve the reduction of source consumption. To reduce the impacts on environment, it minimizes the emission and toxic dispersion. Most importantly, it produces high value of output with lower input such as goods and services to customers. (Brueckner.2010, 28)
While for eco-effectiveness, it acts interdependently among other living systems. (Brueckner.2010, 30) It is performed when products are fully biocompatible because they will provide nourishment to nourish a product when it reaches its useful life. Thus, the product is regenerative and attractive instead of remaining old and depletive. On the other hand, non-biodegradable products which are products that will not be broken down under natural conditions will have to continue to circulate within closed-loop industrial cycles. (Brueckner.2010, 31)
There are six principles elements of industrial ecology. Firstly, the creation of industrial ecosystems to evaluate the waste of raw materials to minimize waste generation and the use of recycled materials in production. (Brueckner.2010, 32) The reduction in the use of input resources and promoting of recyclable and durability shows the eco-efficiency. Secondly, the dealing with toxics and wastes from industry to achieve a balance in both inputs and outputs. (Brueckner.2010, 32) It is eco-efficiency because it improves the knowledge of ecosystem. With that, it is possible to identify the safest way to interface with nature such as location, recovery time and capacity. (Hoffman and Andrew 2013, 66-86) Thirdly, dematerialization of industrial output. (Brueckner.2010, 32) It is more likely to eco-efficiency because it decreases the use of virgin materials and energy to increase resource efficient by reusing...