June 11, 2012
This paper is a review of pivotal technologies that helped end America’s isolation and evolved into the period known as the industrial revolution which is 1865 to present. Although there were many new inventions that defined our future and expansion as a nation, in my opinion the forming of International Business Machines and the computer, defined many of the most important advancements of the 20th century.
Whether or not we are talking about invisible technologies like the zipper or pivotal technologies like flight and the Model T, this period was a dynamic and innovative one, ...view middle of the document...
S. economy floundered. While most businesses were being closed, IBM kept their workers busy producing new machines even while demand was missing. Thanks to their vision and large inventory of equipment, IBM was prepared to accommodate when the Social Security Act of 1935 brought the company a government contract to maintain employment records for 26 million people. It was called "the biggest accounting operation of all time," and it was executed so well that orders from other U.S. government departments quickly followed.
Additionally, the computers origin leads to IBM begin to manufacture calculators in the 1930s, using the technology from the punch card processing equipment. In 1944, an idea to invent a computer, IBM together with Harvard University financed the invention of the Mark 1 computer. This turned out to be the first machine to compute long calculations automatically. By 1953, IBM was able to produce their own computers, which began with the IBM 701 EDPM. This model ended up being their first commercially successful computer. As we know the 701 was just the beginning of a long history to come. IBM Corporation was the first to introduce a local area network (LAN) in 1984. It integrated independent computer systems, normally within a corporate business setting so each unit could exchange information at high speed.
Claude Shannon (1916- 2001) first had the idea to use digital electronics in computers and in 1937 and J.V.Atanasoff built the first model computer that could solve 29 simultaneous equations. The issue was that this device could not be programed. During this period, computers evolved at a rapid rate. Also at this time many of these projects were secrets and remained secret until much later. In the late 1940 the US army commissioned John V. Mauchly to develop a device to calculate ballistics during World War II. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, as it was called proved to be a turning point in computer history. ENIAC proved to be an efficient machine however difficulty to operate. At this point in history changes would often require the device itself to be re-programmed. Of course this was not ideal and the engineers were all too aware that this needed to be solved in order to move to the next level with this technology. This is what led to the development of "stored program architecture".
John von Neumann, (a consultant to the ENIAC), Mauchly and his team developed EDVAC, which called upon stored programs. Eckert and Mauchly later developed what we now consider as the first commercially successful computer, the UNIVAC. Software technology during this period was very basic and the programs were written out in machine code. This began to change in the 1950s, programmers were using a set of symbolic notations, called assembly language, next they then hand-translating the symbolic notation into machine code. Late 1950 began the use of transistor based computers which would save money, work faster, had a...