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Infectious Disease Essay

1369 words - 6 pages

What is the stake of the American People and the Government by International Agencies to control Infectious Disease in Developing Countries?

More people are at risk of infectious diseases than at any other time on history. Infectious diseases are worldwide problem requiring worldwide attention. Infectious diseases can weaken the strength of a nation's resources. In developing nations this poses even a greater threat. Diseases are threatening the economic stability of many developing nations. 50,000 people die everyday from infectious disease.

Rift Valley Fever infects both livestock and humans. Rift Valley Fever is most commonly found in regions of eastern and southern ...view middle of the document...

In diagnosing Rift Valley Fever, tests have demostrated the presence of antibodies to the disease. Studies in animals have given antiviral drugs for the use of humans. Herdsman and animal workers in areas where Rift Valley Fever is present are at a greater risk of being infected. The risk of transmission can be reduced by, wearing gloves, insect repellent, the use of protective clothes, and avoiding outdoor activity during peak biting times. Surveillance is important to form effective measures for reducing the number of infections.

Cholera is a diarrheal illness that is spread by contaminated water and food. It is caused by an infection of the intestine, and in many cases it can be very severe. It is characterized by lavish watery diahehrea, leg cramps and vomiting. Rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. The agent that causes cholera is the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which was discovered by Robert Koch in1883. Without proper treatment, death can occur within hours. Even though, Cholera can be prevented very easily. In regions of the world with advanced water and sanitation systems, cholera is less widespread. In highly endemic areas, it is mainly a disease of young children. When cholera occurs in unprepared communities, the fatality rate can be up to 50%, usually because there are no facilities for treatment. The cholera epidemic of January 1991 started in South America and quickly spread to eleven countries.

The source of contamination is most commonly found in the excrement of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with insufficient treatment of sewage and drinking water. The disease is not likely to spread from one person to another through casual contact with an infected person. Cholera can be successfully treated by the replacement of the salts and fluids lost through diarrhea. People can be treated with oral rehydration. This is used throughout the world to treat diarrhea. Some treatment consists of packets containing the correct mixture of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and glucose have been made widely available by the WHO. Most patients recover in three to six days. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole can shorten the duration of the disease. Antibiotics diminish the discomfort of the illness, but they are not as effective as rehydration.

Severe cases also require fluid replacement. People who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting should seek medical attention immediately. Fewer than 1% of cholera patients die with rehydration.

Control of the disease is still a major medical problem in several countries. The World Health Organization estimates that 78 percent of the population in less developed countries is without clean water and 85 percent without adequate fecal waste disposal(1). Epidemics of cholera occurred in 1953 in Calcutta, India; between 1964 and 1967 in South Vietnam;...

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