From Emerging Infectious Diseases
Newborn Screening for Congenital Infectious Diseases
Eurico Camargo Neto; Rosélia Rubin; Jaqueline Schulte; Roberto Giugliani
Authors and Disclosures
Posted: 06/16/2004; Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(6) © 2004 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Abstract and Introduction
To estimate the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus, and rubella, blood samples on dried blood spot (DBS) from neonates (day 3–20 of life) were screened for immunoglobulin (Ig) M against Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and IgG against Trypanosoma cruzi by methods used for serum and adapted for ...view middle of the document...
 Moreover, prenatal screening has indicated neither the natural history of toxoplasmosis nor the efficacy of antiparasite treatment during pregnancy. A study by Guerina et al. showed a prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis of 1 per 10,000 live births in the United States, where 85% of women of childbearing age are susceptible to acute infection with T. gondii.
Congenital Chagas disease has been reported, mostly in Latin America, where approximately 20 million persons are affected; 90 million others are at risk of being infected by the parasite. The high prevalence of the disease has been demonstrated in several Latin American countries.[8-10] The evolution of the congenital and reactive forms of the disease has yet to be determined. The vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi cannot be prevented, but early detection and treatment of congenital infection achieve cure rates close to 100%.[12-14] Persons infected by T. cruzi can be successfully treated with nifurtimox or benznidazole.[12-14]
Cytomegalovirus is the most common congenital virus infection in the world. Both primary and recurrent infection can result in fetal infection. The birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection varies from 0.3% to 2.4%, and at least 90% of congenitally infected infants have no clinical signs. The disease causes illnesses ranging from no clinical signs to prematurity, encephalitis, deafness, hematologic disorders, and death. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is described in 30,000 to 40,000 newborns each...