Infectious Diseases and its Control
2. Typhoid Fever
6. Tinea Corporis (Ringworm)
6. Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)
8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
10. Reference List
14. Appendix 1
15. Appendix 2
16. Appendix 3
17. Appendix 4
18. Appendix 5
Kenya is a country in the sub-Saharan region of Africa with a population of 44.86 million in 2014 (World Book nd). It is a developing country with poor sanitation and lack of medical treatment which is why serious diseases are prevalent. It is strongly recommended that anyone travelling to Kenya seek medical advice before travelling as vaccinations may be available (CDC 2015). This report will ...view middle of the document...
S.Typhi also has Vi antigens which helps it avoid detection if non-self by the macrophages, which are used to transport S.Typhi through the lymphatic system to the reticuloendothelial tissues of the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes (see appendix 2). If treatment is not prompt S.Typhi can cause the intestine to become inflamed and necrotic due to the replication of the bacteria on the Peyer Patches. Blood vessels may erode causing the patient to haemorrhage and the intestinal wall may also become perforated (Britannica 2015).
Diagnosis is mainly done by a body fluid or tissue culture tests using a blood, urine, stool or bone marrow sample. Other tests may be done to check for antibodies to S.Typhi bacteria or Typhoid DNA in the blood. If left untreated Typhoid can be fatal for up to 30% of people. Coalition Against Typhoid (2015) states treatment is usually by the use antibiotics from the Quinolone family such as Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim. These drugs work by preventing the bacterial DNA from replicating. However S.Typhi has developed resistance to these drugs so Azithromycin and Cephalosporin are widely used as second-line drugs against drug resistant Typhoid Fever. Azithromycin prevents the bacteria from producing proteins essential for growth and replication ultimately destroying it.
Bhutta, Punjwani and Lindblad (1996) indicates that the first drug resistant strains of S.Typhi were reported in 1950 due to overuse of the antibiotics. There are two factors that mediate drug resistance, acquisition of resistance genes by plasmids or by mutation of chromosomes (Holt, Phan and Baker et al, 2011)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) recommend that anyone travelling to high risk areas of Typhoid fever to get vaccinated at least 2 weeks before travel. There are two main vaccines, the Vi vaccine which is an inactive form of Typhoid fever injected into the patient giving protection for up to 2 years, and the Ty21a is a live Typhoid vaccine taken orally providing protection for up to 5 years. Personal prevention will also help by having good personal hygiene, only drinking bottled water and not eating uncooked food.
WHO (2015) describes malaria as a vector borne disease caused by the plasmodium parasite which is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. There are 5 types of plasmodium that infect humans, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium ovale, plasmodium malariae and plasmodium knowlesi. According to CDC (2015) the most prevalent species in Kenya is P.falciparum which is also the most dangerous.
The Medicines for Malaria Venture (2009) describes the symptoms of uncomplicated malaria as flu-like including fever, muscle aches, diarrhoea and vomiting. These develop between 7 – 18 days. Severe malaria, caused by P.falciparum, causes breathing difficulties, low blood sugar levels, anaemia and coma.
Marcus, B. (2009) explains the Plasmodium lifecycle. It starts when the female Anopheles...