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Influence Of Organizational Culture On Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Three Sector Study

5754 words - 24 pages

GLOBAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS RESEARCH ♦ VOLUME 6 ♦ NUMBER 1 ♦ 2012

INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: A
THREE-SECTOR STUDY
Jagannath Mohanty, Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur
Bhabani P Rath, Berhampur University, Berhampur
ABSTRACT
In recent years, the employer expectations have witnessed an upward surge, in anticipation of certain
discretionary behaviors out of their employees, which fall beyond the purview of workplace requirement
and reward systems. All this apparently is to ensure long service periods and bring out the
‘Organizational Citizen’ within the employee in the organizational context. The present paper is an
attempt ...view middle of the document...

Further, theorists and practitioners alike suggest that improving
organizational culture assists in regaining organizational; competitiveness and revitalizing declining
organizations (Yeung, Brockbank & Ulrich, 1991). Morgan (2002) explained culture as an active living
phenomenon through which people jointly create and recreate the worlds in which they live.
Organizational culture provides a framework for using conceptual work and scholarship to improve an
organization’s effectiveness. (Cameron and Quinn, 2006) found that it is difficult to find a highly
successful company that does not have a distinctive, readily identifiable organizational culture because of
its powerful effect on performance and long-term effectiveness.
In fact, Organization Citizenship Behavior is those discretionary individual behaviors that employees
display which are above and beyond formal role requirements of the workplace and is entirely
individual’s discretion. They are often described as behaviors that "go above and beyond the call of duty".
Not surprisingly, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors are considered to arise, at least in part, from
intrinsic motivation including a positive mood state and the need for affiliation or a sense of achievement
(Organ, 1988). Derived from Katz's (1964) notion of extra-role behaviors, Organizational Citizenship
Behaviors have been defined as "individual behaviors that are discretionary, not directly or explicitly
recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promote the effective functioning of an
organization" (Organ, 1988, p. 4). They represent ‘extra effort’ by employees that is nonetheless essential
for the effectiveness of the organization, especially where organizational performance is dependent on the
65

J. Mohanty & B. P. Rath | GJBR ♦ Vol. 6 ♦ No. 1 ♦ 2012

interconnectedness and social networks of its people. Though it is not formally recognized by the reward
system of an organization, it has the potential to contribute towards improving efficiency and
effectiveness of an organization leading to increased competitive advantage.
In order to achieve some of the objectives mentioned in the paper so far, the paper is structured as
follows: Firstly, we review the theoretical literature on Organizational Culture and Organizational
Citizenship Behavior. Following a literature review, a couple of relationships are hypothesized. Later, we
show an empirical analysis of data gathered from 380 employees of three Organizations viz., Banking,
Information Technology and Manufacturing. The research sample, the conceptual model and data
collection methods are then discussed, followed by a presentation of the research results. The paper ends
by indicating its principal conclusions and discussions.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The study of organizational culture is not a recent phenomenon (Trice & Beyer, 1993). The beginning
studies of culture in organizations can be traced back to the early...

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