3. In a means–end chain, what are the means? The ends? How do they affect advertising design?
According to the means-end chain theory, the means are the message that should lead the consumer to a desired end state. These end states are personal values such as: comfortable life, equally, excitement, freedom, fun, happiness, inner peace and others. A means–end chain should start a process in which viewing the ad leads the consumer to believe that using the product will help achieve one of the personal values.
This theory forms the basis of the Means–End Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy (MECCAS) model. This model suggests that six elements should be ...view middle of the document...
The attention will be greater for opposite-sex situations than same-sex situations. Sexually oriented ads that create physiological arousal responses in the viewers tend to be more effective.
Sexual appeals often fail when they are too overtly sexual and are seen as offensive by different groups of people.
9. What types of testimonials can advertisers use? Give an example of each
The types of testimonials are based on the product, service and the company itself. In the business-to-business and service sectors a customer relating a positive experience with a product offers a testimonial. Testimonials from current customers add credibility to the claims. For example PEOPLECERT, a global organization with wide experience in the certification industry, use testimonials of companies that have tried their solutions with great results.
Testimonials can be focused on a company. Most buyers believe what others say about a company more than they believe what a company says about itself. Testimonials offer greater credibility than self-proclamations. For example different universities use testimonial of current students who describe their experiences or graduated students working for well-known companies.
Testimonials offer an effective method for promoting services. Services are intangible; they cannot be seen or touched, and consumers cannot examine them before making decisions. A testimony from a current customer provides a succinct description of the beneﬁts or attributes of the service. For example Banks use testimonials to promote their banking services.
13. List the key criteria used when selecting a spokesperson?
Most account executives and companies consider several characteristics while selecting a spokesperson. The main characteristics are:
Attractiveness, likeability, trustworthiness, and expertise together form credibility. The effectiveness of an advertisement that utilizes a spokesperson depends on the degree to which the person has one or more of the characteristics listed.
15. What issues are present when adapting an advertising program to an international audience?
* When adapting an advertising program to an international audience, it is important to make sure the message strategy and form of executional framework match the tendencies and preferences in a region.
* Marketers should be aware that comparison advertisements are less common in other countries, due to both social and cultural differences, as well as legal restrictions.
* The message strategy chosen affects the execution. Other patterns and changes in preferred forms of executions can be discovered by watching local media and reading about trends in magazines and trade journals in the country involved.
It is important to consider that while maintaining an overall message and idea, the advertiser adjusts to social customs present in a...