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Integrating Qualitative And Quantitative Approaches To Research

1415 words - 6 pages

Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Independientemente del paradigma de investigación, la calidad de las preguntas manejan los métodos de investigación. Como supuestos iniciales se plantea que las aproximaciones cualitativa y cuantitativa no están separadas y discretas, sino más bien son una aproximación conjunta continua. Se debe diferenciar metodología mixta de métodos mixtos, donde la integración de las aproximaciones se da en todas las etapas del estudio de investigación. Se considera una aproximación mixta ya que se pueden plantear dos tipos de preguntas de investigación, se tienen dos tipos de procedimiento de muestro (probabilístico y deliberado), dos tipos ...view middle of the document...

Por definición el muestreo involucra la selección de unidades de análisis. Desde el punto de vista probabilístico (basado en fórmulas matemáticas pre-establecidas) el muestro puede ser aleatorio simple, estratificado, o por clúster. Desde el punto de vista deliberado tradicional (se utiliza mucho el juicio de expertos) el muestreo puede ocurrir antes o durante la recolección de datos, e involucra ciertos casos basados en un propósito específico o pregunta de investigación más allá de hacerlo aleatorio. El muestreo deliberado se lo utiliza cuando se pretende alcanzar una representatividad, se requiere un mayor enfoque en la investigación (para un caso especial o único), o cuando la meta del proyecto de investigación es la generación de la teoría. Los estudios de métodos mixtos involucran ambas técnicas de nuestros, la probabilística y la deliberada. Respecto al muestro en los estudios de métodos mixtos se tienen cuatro tipos de usos: (a) básico (incluye el muestreo deliberado estratificado y aleatorio deliberado), (b) secuencial (uso de estrategias de muestro probabilístico y deliberado), (c) paralelo (uso simultáneo de estrategias de muestreo), y (d) multinivel (las unidades de análisis están anidadas una dentro del otro). La recolección de datos en los métodos mixtos se realiza de dos maneras: no estructura o por narrativa en marcha (preguntas abiertas), y (b) usando instrumentos con un formato estructurado específico (preguntas cerradas). Varios métodos mixtos emplean las dos formas de recolección de datos, ya sea de manera secuencial o paralela. Por ejemplo, la observación cuantitativa estructurada junto con las entrevistas

cualitativas es una estrategia común de recolección de datos. La entrevista es un método poderoso de recolección de datos por la intensidad de interacción entre el investigador y los individuos bajo estudio, cuyos resultados son capaces de generar datos cualitativos y cuantitativos, ya que las preguntas pueden ser abiertas o cerradas (aunque algunas entrevistas utilizan ambos formatos de preguntas). Las entrevistas a grupos focales son otra fuente de datos para los estudios de métodos mixtos, donde las preguntas son típicamente de tipo abiertas, por lo tanto se generan datos narrativos. Los cuestionarios también llevan a obtener datos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Otras técnicas de investigación son las medidas no obstrusivas que permiten examinar fenómenos sociales sin interferir o cambiar el fenómeno bajo estudio. Son técnicas no reactivas donde los individuos observados no reaccionarán durante la investigación. La esencia del análisis de datos cualitativos es resumir la cantidad de datos narrativos, para lo cual se tienen tres enfoques: (a) análisis de contenido (diferenciar el significado superficial de un texto y el significado subyacente de la narrativa), (b) análisis comparativo constante (descomponer el texto en unidades de información y categorizar los que relacionan el mismo contenido), y (c) secuencia de...

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