This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

International Affairs Have Been The Nemesis Of Liberalism. The Essence Of Liberalism Is Self Restraint, Moderation, Compromise And Peace Whereas The Essence Of International Politics Is Exactly The Opposite: Troubled

1491 words - 6 pages

International affairs have been the nemesis of Liberalism. The essence of Liberalism is self-restraint, moderation, compromise and peace whereas the essence of international politics is exactly the opposite: troubled peace, at best, or the state of war. Discuss.

To be answer this question effectively it is paramount to know the clear differences between Liberalism and Realism. And also each theory can theoretically work in the international political system, and how each one effects or not effect us.

Realism and liberalism are the two central paradigms in International Relations. They have differing ideas when it comes to explaining how states associate themselves and with each other ...view middle of the document...

The theory puts forward the idea that there is a continuous power struggle between nations and that this antagonism is unrelenting. Though there is interdependence between states, there is an essential struggle for survival that is the fundamental factor of these conflicts. Since there is no world government institution, each nation requires a strong military to defend its interests from other states. The realist theory says that a strong military is a states governments strongest weapon, more so than strong diplomatic relations as also under realist theory, which is linked with the Conservative theory of human nature mankind and hence governments are not benevolent beings, however we are infact selfish and antagonistic. Hans Morgenthau, in his definitive book Politics among Nations’ he says "Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim. The struggle for power is universal in time and space and is an undeniable fact of experience." (Hans Morgenthau – Politics among Nation: The Struggle for Power and Peace – 1948)

Furthermore, Realists also believe that nations are naturally antagonistic and that wars and expansion of land are only curtailed by external forces. How this brings across a catch-22 scenario as one state expands its security, its rivals will also increase its security in line. This notable seen with the Cold War.

Realism as with other political theories have different sub groups which have some important differences.

Maximal realism believes that the world stability focuses on the hegemon, the most influential entity in the world, for example, the UN or arguably the USA and that smaller states and entities will support this hegemon out of political self interest. Under maximal realism, if and when the situation arises that there are two similar powerful entities in existence, again as seen during the cold war, the situation to maintain the tradition of stability where eventually one of these nations becomes more powerful, through political, military and economic means.

In contrast to this, minimal realism states that non-hegemonic states will support each other against the prevalent institution as a way of maintaining their own interests on the worlds sphere rather than them being subdued by the hegemons prevailing interests. In addition, as we see especially in times of conflict or political change, these smaller entities will ally itself with one hegemon against an equally powerful one, usually choosing the larger entity that is most similar in political or cultural ways.

However in stark contrast Liberalism states that national preferences, rather than state abilities, are the primary elemental factor of state behaviour. Liberalism also allows for plurality in state actions. Thus, preferences will vary from state to state, depending on factors such as culture, economic system or government type. Unlike realism, which sees transnationalism as anarchic, Liberalism...

Other Essays Like International Affairs Have Been the Nemesis of Liberalism. the Essence of Liberalism Is Self-Restraint, Moderation, Compromise and Peace Whereas the Essence of International Politics Is Exactly the Opposite: Troubled

International Politics Essay

1392 words - 6 pages that emerged. As liberalism took center stage in international politics, many viewed it as the end of realism (Dunne & Schmidt 2008). Even so, it will be shown that realism is still relevant today in international politics as the world faces challenges in the form of the fading relevance of multilateralism, emergence of a powerful China, and the threat from rogue states in Iraq and North Korea. First and foremost, multilateralism today is under

International Politics Essay

1636 words - 7 pages of power. The more I study politics, history, and international relations the better I see the realistic approach in international relations. I have been delving more and more into the activities of what is known as the “Deep State” and their role which is played in each and every nations policy building, and the way in which countries interact. The more I read books for example about the NSA, CIA, KGB, MOSSAD, MIT, MI5, MI6 etc, I am

The Role That Australia Has Played in International Affairs in the Post-War Period

1048 words - 5 pages ; UNESCO, WHO, IAEA and the ILO. The United Nations is always the centre of most international initiatives. Australia works together with many other countries to promote peace and security, improve the lives of the world’s people and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Australia has also been a part of or is a part of many regional agreements such as; the Colombo Plan, ANZUS, SEATO and APEC. Australia has joined these agreements for many

How Should The UN Be Reformed To Promote International Peace And Stability In The 21st Century?

2670 words - 11 pages It is true that the United Nations can claim victory to many past notable achievements. Despite this there are numerous critics of the organization who have asserted that the UN's salient purpose of maintaining of international peace and security is gradually being lessened. Accordingly, many of the afore said achievements are being obscured by the overwhelming sentiment that the United Nations is an ineffective institution, that is of little

The Essence of Literature is in the Tension Between Emotion and Intellect

1553 words - 7 pages in his novel that moral behaviour, in many cases, is something that civilization forces upon the individual rather than a natural expression of human individuality. This furthermore brings to question, is it the human’s superior knowledge that makes us more civilized, or is it only the society that we have made that stops us from returning to our primitive state. The essence of the novel is the battle between good and evil, between animals and

Ethnography capturing the essence of what was

464 words - 2 pages Since the world of technology emerged, the appealing characteristic of an entity that was natural has held the curiosity of men. The "Gestures of Self-Protection," submerges into this fascination with something natural that is unaffected by technology and "new world" views. Ethnography tries to capture the essence of what was. "Gesture of Self Protection" examined salvage ethnography, which is the idea of reconstruction of something natural. The

The Supernatural Essence of a Play

932 words - 4 pages wife is able to sleep properly after killing Duncan. Macbeth’s lack of sleep is reflected upon him as a brutal killer, while Lady Macbeth new tendency to sleepwalk and inadvertently act out the scenes of the crimes is reflected on her distress and guilt in plotting the initial crimes. In addition, Macbeth gains an almost inhuman strength and Valladao 4 courage after his fist crime. He is more courageous in crime than he has ever been in a

Metaphysical Premises And Types Of Liberal Ideology: Liberalism As The End And Liberalism As The Way

3739 words - 15 pages century that combined the ideal of liberty with that of social equity and so accepted the necessity of the State's active intervention into social processes; last, so-called new liberalism, propagated specially by F.Hayek, who declared the above intervention harmful, which is exactly opposite to the preceding socially oriented liberalism. The fact of the two concurring forms of liberal ideology in the 20th century evidences that some kind of

Critically Evaluate Post War Realist Explanation of International Politics with Reference to Power

2541 words - 11 pages in politics depends on power, or as Reinhold Niebuhr, America’s greatest Christian realist, so aptly put it, “There has never been a scheme of justice in history which did not have a balance of power at its foundation[8].” This is equally true for the current ascendance of liberalism in international politics, which depends as much on U.S. power and leadership as on the intrinsic appeal of liberal principles. Morgenthau’s warning against the

'Liberalism Is Closely Associated with the Protection of Human Rights and the Promotion of Constitutional Reform' Discuss (30)

1045 words - 5 pages . The Government within the UK exercises great power which results in the constant threat of tyranny, which liberalism as a political concept is aware of. Liberals believe that any entity is likely to be self-regarding/serving if they are left to their own devices and not regulated in any way. Liberals fear arbitrary government and governments in possession of power are likely to pander to Lord Acton’s maxim that "Power tends to corrupt, and

Virginia Slims: Capitalizing on the Essence of Women in a New Era of Equality

1908 words - 8 pages “I think I just swallowed a seed.” The difference we see here, lies in how the model is juxtaposed in position that equates smoking with traits (in this case, the confidence to express her despite the opposition) that are meant to capture the essence of this new era of equality. Yes, as the text reads below the black and white print in bold text, “You’ve come a long way, baby.” Virginia Slims, 1970. Although the majority of adverts

Related Papers

The Impact Of Liberalism On International Relations

2052 words - 9 pages on the international stage. Ideas such as helping human kind move into a state of perpetual peace and cooperation. According to the United Nations website, the United Nations is “committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights” (United Nations, 2011). These ideas seem to resonate with the prevailing ideas of liberalism

Exploring The Discourse Of International Affairs

758 words - 4 pages Exploring The Discourse Of International Affairs When I first enrolled in State University, I began to search the course catalog for undergraduate programs. I was a transfer student from a Law school; therefore, I knew from past experiences that I was interested in Politics. State University offers Political Science and International Affairs. The word “international” got my attention due to the fact that I have always been interested in

To What Extent Have Modern Liberals Departed From The Ideas Of Classical Liberalism? (45)

935 words - 4 pages To What Extent Have Modern Liberals Departed from the Ideas of Classical Liberalism? (45) Liberalism has been active throughout Europe since the early 19th century, although the UKs first experience of Liberalism put into practice was in 1868 under Gladstone’s Liberal government. Early Liberalist ideas concentrated largely around core values of freedom, individualism and a minimal state. However, revisionists have deployed a modern liberalism

Gandhi And International Peace Essay

792 words - 4 pages principles of satya and ahimsa, truth and non-violence, are there to guide us. It is our pride that one of the greatest figures of history lived in our generation, walked with us, spoke to us, taught us the way of civilized living. Thoughts of Gandhiji on International Peace from the book - All Men are Brothers. Mutual love enables Nature to persist. Man does not live by destruction. Self-love compels regard for others. Nations come together because