Phase 1 Individual Project OB 1
* Describe situations and organizational variables that impact employee morale.
* Explain, using examples, the impact of individual perception on morale.
* Discuss how employee empowerment and decision-making autonomy impact morale.
* Develop recommendations for initiative that organizations can implement to positively affect employee morale.
Organizational Politics, It's Moderators and Impact on Work Attitudes, Work Outcomes and at large on the Organization.
Organizational politics fulfills the self-serving interests of the employees sometimes even at the cost of organizational performance. The literature review looks at ...view middle of the document...
Employees in order to survive in the political climate get themselves into political behaviors that affect the employees and organization in a negative manner (Harrell Cook, 1998); employees at times also display political behaviors that manipulate the performance assessment and behaviors of the supervisors. (Higgins, 2003)
Upward appeals as political influence tactics are attained through acquiring informal or formal support of higher ups to endorse the request or using a chain of command to influence the higher levels that possess the power over the other person. But the choices are limited as there are few chances when the higher ups would be able to exercise their power, which they have due to their position in the organization, to make the target act in accordance with someone else (using higher ups) political influence tactics. Exchange tactics as practiced by offering an exchange (you do for me, I'll return the favor), offering personal sacrifice in return to target obeying the request or by striking a chord about the past favors done; this political influence strategy also provides limited opportunities in terms of the limited availability of future behavioral options; this political influence attempt fails when there is no give-and-take in this process and this leads to holding back of favors. Ingratiation can be displayed in variety of chosen behaviors; hence this cannot be limited to few behaviors. (Christiansen, Villanova & Mikulay, 1996)
In addition to the above mentioned political influence strategies, personality traits can also act as a moderator in the political climate; moderators can reduce the impact and influence of the political climate on the individuals. Organizational politics might or might not impact the individuals possessing different personality traits. (Witt, 2002) Similarly, some political influence strategies are not as harmful as others depending upon their nature. (Christiansen, Villanova & Mikulay, 1996)
It is also important how individuals perceive the political climate surrounding them; if employee perceives it as favorable then it might not impact the employee's work attitudes and work outcomes because the employee has compatibility with the environment. (Christiansen, Villanova & Mikulay, 1996)
The literature review looks at the impact of organizational politics on employees work attitudes and work outcomes and also analyzes the moderators of organizational politics; and hence its overall impact on the organization. The moderators were analyzed as they increase and decrease the impact of organizational politics on different individuals. The literature review also looks at the implications of organizational politics.
2. Perception of politics:
Several recent studies have evaluated the perception of organizational politics perspective (i.e. subjective evaluation of the individuals' observation was taken regarding the political climate). The perspective was proposed because individuals...