Intro To Philosophy Final Essay

1436 words - 6 pages


1. Which of these is a problem with Kantian moral theory:

a. the individual doesn't count, a few can be sacrificed for the benefit of the many
b. it appears impossible to calculate the resulting effects of any action on all the different people it affects in all the ways it affects them
c. the moral truths are universal, and thus differences in particular circumstances of certain situations cannot be accounted for
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

2. Thomas Hobbes:

...view middle of the document...

The “ontological argument”:

u. Demonstrates the existence of God by use of empirical evidence
v. Is refuted by the observation that “to exist” is not a quality of a thing
w. Argues that we should believe in God even though there is no evidence
x. All of the above
y. None of the above

6. Cultural Relativism:

z. argues that morality does not exist
{. provides one culture with the theoretical resources to criticize another
|. opposes the idea that there are universal moral truths
}. all of the above
~. none of the above

7. The problem of evil:

. is a problem for traditional (Christian) monotheism
. argues that evil is allowed by God as punishment
. provides support for the belief in God
. all of the above
. none of the above

8. According to the text, “perverse” freedom is:

. The freedom of sexual pleasure
. The freedom to act according to whim, which does not answer to rational justification
. The freedom to act in accordance with one’s own rational reasons
. All of the above
. None of the above

9. Mill argued that:

. The freedom of the individual could be limited if they were psychologically bullying another
. The freedom of the individual could never be limited
. The freedom of the individual could be limited if they were physically abusing another.
. All of the above
. None of the above

10. Nietzsche criticized utilitarianism:

. Because it offended his belief in God
. Because it cannot maximize pleasure while minimizing pain like it says
. Because it was not empirical
. All of the above
. None of the above

11. Locke believed that:

. Humans were naturally endowed with a right to property by God
. Humans achieved the right to property only through social contract
. Humans had no rights
. All of the above
. None of the above

Section II: True or False

12. Kant argues that our ethics come from using our rationality to figure out the correct action in any situation by willing that it be universal.
13. Plato thought that art was a good thing because it gave us a higher level insight into the Truth.
14. Bentham argued that some kinds of happiness were of a higher quality than others.
15. Compatibilism is the idea that one can have free will in a deterministic universe.
16. Political Liberalism (in the classical sense) emphasizes that social formations are nothing more than aggregations of individuals
17. Classical liberalism is what today we would call libertarianism.
18. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that human beings were naturally good and that they were corrupted by civilization.
19. ...

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