Introduction to Psychology
a) Describe how Psychology differs from philosophy and how it developed into a unique discipline. Also, evaluate the significance of differing perspectives in Psychology.
Psychology involves the study of human and animal behaviour, experiences and the mind. The study is carried out using many techniques and it is examined from many perspectives. Most of the techniques emphesize the importance of experimental evidence in support of explanatory theory.
Philosophy of science is involved with the assumptions, foundations, and implications of science. The system is broad with ideas and beliefs about human nature and the nature of the reality we live in. The ...view middle of the document...
With insufficient understanding of life, the thinker is reliant on his imagination and prejudice when trying to stretch his ideas to fit aspects of reality that he has never experienced.
Looking from an angle that highlights the qualitative features of life we will notice that philosophy provides most of the foundation and psychology provides much of the content. The essence of philosophy to determine a qualitative approach to life relies on its analysis of psychology thus this allows the individual to create himself within the context of his historical bearings.
Until 1879 psychology was a branch of philosophy, its first developers were Wilhelm Wundt, William James and Herman Ebignhams. It is the work of several philosphers and scientists that strongly influenced the development of psychology, who established the phylosophical and scientific assumptions that would make psychology an individual discipline. The main individuals who greatly influenced this, were philosophers – Descartes, Locke and scientist Charles Darwin.
René Descartes (1596 – 1650) put forward the idea known as Cartesian Dualism, meaning that the mind and body are seperate and do not depend on eachother. This formed the basis of the Wester medical thinking, however it is only recently that we have started to take this idea seriously, that the mind and body are actually probably more linked than Descartes thought.
John Locke (1963 – 1704) strongly argued his beliefs in the idea known as Emperisim, that all knowledge was received through our senses and that humans did not inherit knowledge or insticnts. This idea argued that internal processes such as thinking, were unobservalble and unimportant. There were only reactions to external stimulations and if they were significant they would demonstrate this by influencing the behaviour.
Charles Darwins theory of evolution exerted a powerful influence on psychology and the rest of science in 1859. the theory favors that environmental demands appear in a continues process of development of species as animals gradually adapt to them.
Wilhelm Wundt, a German scientist founded the first laboratory which was to focus on the psychological research in Leipzig, Germany. It is from here that the different schools of thought emerged in psychology:
School of Structuralism, Funtionalism, Psychoanalytic School of Thought, Gestalt school of psychology, Behavioural school of psychology, Humanistic school of psychology.
|Different perpectives in psychology |
The different schools of thought determine human nature and behaviour patterns that have caused a rise to many theoretical perspectives of psychology. Each perspective tries to examine the complicated human mind in distinct methods. It applies a variety of different techniques of analysis to the human mind and brain in order to unvail appealing...