The Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution was the first event of its kind in Asia. The Revolution opened the way for cataclysmic change in Persia, heralding the modern era. It saw a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press. The revolution created new opportunities and opened up seemingly boundless possibilities for Persia’s future. Many different groups fought to shape the course of the Revolution, and all sections of society were ultimately to be in some way changed by it.
On August 5, 1906, Mozzafar ud-din Shah of the Qajar dynasty issued the decree for the first constitution in West Asia following ten years of the increasingly popular demands of the Iranian upper and middle class (Sources, pp. 97). In the summer of 1906 ...view middle of the document...
These classes were: princes and the Qajar tribe, doctors of divinity and students, nobles and notables, merchants, landed propietors and peasants, and trade guilds.
Turkish Constitutional Revolution of 1908
The Young Turks were a secularist Turkish nationalist reform party in the early twentieth century, favoring reformation of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire. Officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), their leaders led a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II. On July, 24, 1908, the Young Turks forced the Ottoman Sultan to restore the December 23, 1876 Ottoman Constitution that he had dissolved earlier in February of 1878. In that year where the constitution had dissolved Abdul Majid II had to deal mainly with the skills of the Ottoman reformer, statesman, and Grand Vezir, Midhat Pasha. Pasha was dismissed twice and sentenced to death before finally being expelled to the Saudi city of Taif. The Young Turks put up a much better fight having the support of the citizens and Turkish army. They were more organized and willing to do whatever it took. Significant results of the 1908 revolution included the gradual creation of new governing elite, led to the deposition of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in favor of Mehmed V the following year, and opened a path for consolidation over the Ottoman civil and military administration. Committee of Union and Progress became the new power center in Ottoman politics.
The early twentieth century witnessed the collapse of old state structures and values and the complex process of the emergence of new systems to replace them. Both Iran and Turkey are perfect examples of countries who paved the way for the modern era. These revolutions were experienced by all levels of society, from the elite to the most humble.