Research Journal of Management Sciences ____________________________________________ ISSN 2319–1171 Vol. 2(2), 3-8, February (2013) Res. J. Management Sci.
Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach: An Overview
Rajesh Attri1, Nikhil Dev1 and Vivek Sharma2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, YMCA University of Science and Technology, Faridabad, INDIA Department of Mechanical Engineering, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal, INDIA
Available online at: www.isca.in
Received 27th November 2012, revised 27th January 2013, accepted 1st February 2013
Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying ...view middle of the document...
It becomes difficult to deal with such a system in which structure is not clearly defined. Hence, it necessitates the development of a methodology which aids in identifying a structure within a system. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is such a methodology1. ISM is defined as a process aimed at assisting the human being to better understand what he/she believes and to recognise clearly what he/she does not know. Its most essential function is organisational. The information added (by the process) is zero. The value added is structural2. The ISM process transforms unclear, poorly articulated mental models of systems into visible and well-defined models. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM): ISM is an interactive learning process. In this technique, a set of different directly and indirectly related elements are structured into a comprehensive systematic model3,4. The model so formed portrays the structure of a complex issue or problem in a carefully designed pattern implying graphics as well as words1, 5, 6, 7 . Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific items, which define a problem or an issue8. For any complex problem under consideration, a number of factors may be related to an International Science Congress Association
issue or problem. However, the direct and indirect relationships between the factors describe the situation far more accurately than the individual factor taken into isolation. Therefore, ISM develops insights into collective understandings of these relationships. ISM starts with an identification of variables, which are relevant to the problem or issue, and then extends with a group problemsolving technique. Then a contextually relevant subordinate relation is chosen. Having decided on the element set and the contextual relation, a structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) is developed based on pairwise comparison of variables. In the next step, the SSIM is converted into a reachability matrix (RM) and its transitivity is checked. Once transitivity embedding is complete, a matrix model is obtained. Then, the partitioning of the elements and an extraction of the structural model called ISM is derived9. In this approach, a systematic application of some elementary notions of graph theory is used in such a way that theoretical, conceptual and computational leverage are exploited to explain the complex pattern of contextual relationship among a set of variables. ISM is intended for use when desired to utilise systematic and logical thinking to approach a complex issue under consideration10. Interpretive Structural Modeling is a computer-aided method for developing graphical representations of system composition and structure. ISM had its inception in Warfield’s4 perception of the need, when attempting to couple science to policy, for “a set of communication tools which have both a scientific and lay character serving as a linkage mechanism...