Juvenl Bipolar Disorder Research Summary Essay

1082 words - 5 pages

Psychology 1100 Article Summary Assignment Article’s authors: Carrie E. Bearden, David C. Glahn, Sheila Caetano, Rene L. Olvera, Manoela Fonseca, Pablo Najt, Kristina Hunter, Steve R. Pliszka and Jair C. Soares Article: Evidence for disruption in prefrontal cortical functions in juvenile bipolar disorder Journal: Bipolar Disorders, vol. 9(Suppl. 1) Year of Publication: June 2007 SUMMARY Juvenile bipolar-disorder (juvenile BPD), also called manic-depressive illness, is a disorder characterized by altering periods of mania then to periods of depression, and then descends quickly to moments of normal mood lasting for long intervals. This disorder manifests differently in children ...view middle of the document...

146). Independent measurements were used to examine specific function of executive function and standard executive function measures were used for result comparison tools to other studies. After the assessment, the neurocognitive battery procedure was conducted and lasted for 2.5 hours. It was completed in a fixed order with resting intervals as needed. This procedure was divided into examining five executive functions. The first was the general cognitive function which was tested using the TONI-3 (Test of non-verbal intelligence-3). The test consisted of 50 non-verbal matrices and uses a language-free format which was suitable to test subjects who may have difficulty in communication, learning, and a lack of English proficiency. Processing speed and attention was tested using Digit Symbol Substitution Test computerized version, which tested the participants ability to determine whether a target digit-symbol pair is a part of the given reference set of 9 digit-symbol pairs in 90 seconds. A second test was also used, which was the D-KEFS (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System) Trail-Making Test, which tested the participants’ cognitive flexibility from impairment in one or more fundamental component skill. The examiner assessed whether “deficient score in switching condition is related to a higher level deficit in set shifting or to one or more impairments in an underlying component skill” (p. 150). Abstraction or rule attainment was tested with the Abstraction and Working Memory Test (AIM), which required the participant to use information to group stimuli in a meaningful way and test their ability to find similarities between a target object and other shapes. Different trial types were used in order to compare performances and compare the effects of increasing maintenance, which was divided from abstraction (manipulation). Working memory was tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) Digit Span, Forward and Backward, testing the subject’s verbal maintenance and verbal manipulation. Another test, called the Spatial Working Memory Capacity Task (SCAP), tested the working memory ability and capacity of the subject. Fluency tests were on verbal and design fluency, which tested the subject’s ability to “generate words in phonemic format from over learned concepts, while simultaneously shifting between over learned concepts” (p. 151). Design fluency used the D-KEFS Design Fluency Test which tested the subject’s basic design fluency, response inhibition and ability to simultaneously use design fluency and cognitive flexibility. The statistical analyses...

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