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Kekuasaan Kehakiman Essay

934 words - 4 pages

Oleh :
NIM : B11106848
TAHUN 2010
Pengantar Istilah judicial review sesungguhnya merupakan istilah teknis khas hukum tata negara Amerika Serikat yang berarti wewenang lembaga pengadilan untuk membatalkan setiap tindakan pemerintahan yang bertentangan dengan konstitusi. Pernytaan ini diperkuat oleh Soepomo dan Harun Alrasid, mereka mengatakan di Belanda tidak dikenal istilah judicial review, mereka ...view middle of the document...

Dalam kapasitasnya sebagai pembentuk undang-undang, kedua organ tersebut (DPR dan Presiden) tidak wenang untuk merubah atau membatalkan suatu produk undang-undang. Pemerintah sendiri justru harus mentaati suatu produk undang-undang, dan DPR menggunakan undang-undang bersangkutan sebagai satndar atau alat control terhadap pemerintah dalam melaksanakan kinerjanya. Persoalannya adalah ketika produk undang-undang tersebut nilai konstitulitasnya bertentanga dengan konstitusi, apakah harus terus dilanjutkan, pelaksanaan dan fungsi kontrolnya. Pada sisi inilah Mahkamah Konstitusi sebagai lembaga judicial mengambil peran, untuk melakukan uji konstitualitas.
Judicial Review
Istilah judicial review sesungguhnya merupakan istilah teknis khas hukum tata negara Amerika Serikat yang berarti wewenang lembaga pengadilan untuk membatalkan setiap tindakan pemerintahan yang bertentangan dengan konstitusi. Pernytaan ini diperkuat oleh Soepomo dan Harun Alrasid, mereka mengatakan di Belanda tidak dikenal istilah judicial review, mereka hanya mengenal istilah hak menguji (toetsingensrecht). Judicial review dimaksudkan menjadi salah satu cara untuk menjamin hak-hak kenegaraan yang dimiliki oleh seorang warga negara pada posisi diametral dengan kekuasaan pembuatan peraturan.
Mauro Capelletti, secara substantif mengartikan judicial review sebagai sebuah proses penerjemahan nilai-nilai yang ditentukan oleh konstitusi melalui sebuah metode tertentu untuk menjadi suatu keputusan tertentu. Proses penerjemahan tersebut terkait dengan pertanyaan questio juris yang juga harus dijalankan oleh para hakim dalam sebuah lembaga kehakiman, hakim tidak hanya memeriksa fakta-fakta (judex factie), tetapi juga mencari, menemukan dan menginterpretasikan hukumnya (judex juris). Artinya, penekanan pada proses interpretasinya ini (proses review) mengakibatkan judicial review menjadi isu yang punya kaitan erat dengan struktur ketatanegaraan suatu negara bahkan hingga ke proses politik pada suatu negara. Konsep ini memiliki hubungan erat dengan struktur tatanegara suatu negara yang menempatkan dan menentukan lembaga mana sebagai pelaksana kekuasaan tersebut. Bahkan lebih jauh, bagaimana proses politik nasional memaknai pelaksanaan pemegang kekuasaan judicial review tersebut.
Objek Hukum Judicial Review Praktek Judicial Review dikenal tiga macam norma hukum yang bisa diuji :
Keputusan normative yang berisi dan bersifat pengaturan (regeling)
Keputusan normative yang berisi dan bersifat penetapan administrative (beschikking)
Keputusan normative yang berisi dan bersifat...

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